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Rama   Prasdd,    M.A. 







RAMA    PR  AS  AD,    M.A.,  F.T.S. 

Its  one  absolute  attribute,  which  is  itself,  eternal,  ceaseless  Motion,  is  called 
in  esoteric  parlance  the  "Great  Breath,"  which  is  the  perpetual  motion  of  the 
Universe,  in  the  sense  of  limitless,  ever-present  Space. 

—H.  P.  Blai-atskv  :  The  Seoet  Docti  fne. 



161,  NEW    BOND    STREET,  W. 

Reprinted   1907. 



The  Tattvas  .  ' 

The  Mutual  Relation  of  the  Tattvas  and  of  the  Principles    .         19 

Prana             .            .  3° 

The  Mind      .            .  89 

The  Cosmic  Picture-Gallery  I22 

The  Manifestations  of  Psychic  Force  14° 

Yoga— The  Soul       .  '45 

The  Spirit     .  ]75 

The  Science  of  Breath  l!^5 



A   WORD  of  explanation  is  necessary  with  regard 
to  the  book  now  offered  to  the  public.     In  the  ninth 
and  tenth  volumes  of  The  Thcosophist  I  wrote  certain 
essays  on  "Nature's  Finer  Forces."      The  subject  of 
these  essays  interested  the  readers  of  TJie  Thcosophist 
so  much,  that  I  was  asked  to  issue  the  series  of  essays 
in  book  form.     On  reading  the  essays  for  this  purpose 
I  found  that  in  order  to  make  a  book  they  must  be 
almost   entirely   rearranged   and   perhaps   re- written. 
However,  not  being  equal  to  the  task  of  re-writing 
what  I  had  once  written,  I  determined  to  publish  a 
translation  of  the  book  in  Sanskrit  on  the  Science  of 
Breath  and  the  Philosophy  of  the  Tattvas.     As,  more 
over,  without  these  essays  the  book  would  have  been 
quite  unintelligible,  I  decided  to  add  them  to  the  book 
by  way  of  an  illustrative  introduction.     This  accord 
ingly  has  been  done.     The  essays  in  The  Thcosophist 
have  been  reprinted  with  certain  additions,  modifica 
tions  and  corrections.     Besides,  I  have  written  several 
more  essays  in  order  to  make  the  explanations  more' 
complete  and  authoritative. 

I  was  confirmed   in  this  course  by  one   more  coil 


sideration.  The  book  contains  a  good  deal  more  than 
the  essays  touched  upon,  and  I  thought  it  better  to 
lay  all  of  it  before  the  public. 

The  book  is  sure  to  throw  a  good  deal  of  light 
upon  the  scientific  researches  of  the  ancient  Aryans 
of  India,  and  it  will  leave  no  doubt  in  a  candid  mind 
that  the  religion  of  ancient  India  had  a  scientific  basis. 
It  is  chiefly  for  this  reason  that  I  have  drawn  my  illus 
trations  of  the  Tattvic  Law  from  the  Upanishads. 

There  is  a  good  deal  in  the  book  which  can  only  be 
shown  to  be  true  by  long  and  diligent  experiment. 
Those  who  are  devoted  to  the  pursuit  of  truth  with 
out  prejudice  will  no  doubt  be  ready  to  wait  before 
they  form  any  opinion  about  such  portions  of  the 
book.  Others  it  is  useless  to  reason  with. 

To  the  former  class  of  students  I  have  to  say  one 
word  more.  From  my  own  experience  I  can  tell  them 
that  the  more  they  study  the  book,  the  more  wisdom 
they  are  sure  to  find  in  it,  and  let  me  hope  that  ere 
long  I  shall  have  a  goodly  number  of  colleagues,  who 
will  with  me  try  their  best  to  explain  and  illustrate 
the  book  still  better  and  more  thoroughly. 

November  5///,  1889. 


THE  points  on  which  revision  has  been  attempted 
are:  (i)  the  style  of  printing  has  been  made  uniform 
with  the  rest  of  the  books  printed  on  the  "H.  P.  B." 
Press;  (2)  consistency  in  transliteration  of  Sanskrit 
terms  has  been  studied,  and  a  number  of  errors  cor 
rected;  (3)  the  English  of  some  phrases  has  been 
improved;  and  (4)  a  few  passages  have  been  omitted 
from  the  text.  R.  H.  is  responsible  for  some  small 
portion  of  the  work  of  revision,  and  for  the  rest  the 
undersigned,  who  has  a  high  appreciation  of  Mr.  Rama 
Prasad's  essays — an  appreciation,  however,  which  is 
not  extended  to  certain  portions  of  the  Tantrik  work 

he  has  so  ably  translated. 

G.  R.  S.  M. 
LONDON,  1894. 






THE  Tattvas  are  the  five  modifications  of  the  Great 
Breath.  Acting  upon  Prakriti  this  Great  Breath 
throws  it  into  five  states,  having  distinctive  vibratory 
motions,  and  performing  different  functions.  The 
first  outcome  of  the  evolutionary  state  of  Parabrah- 
man  is  the  Akasha  Tattva.  After  this  come  in  order 
the  Vayu,  the  Tejas,  the  Apas  and  the  Prithivi.  They 
are  variously  known  as  Mahabhiitas.  The  word 
Akasha  is  generally  translated  into  English  by  the 
word  ether.  Unfortunately,  however,  to  modern  Eng 
lish  science  sound  is  not  known  to  be  the  distinguish 
ing  quality  of  ether.  Some  few  might  also  have  the 
idea  that  the  modern  medium  of  light  is  the  same  as 
Akasha.  'This,  I  believe,  is  a  mistake.  The  lumini- 
ferous  ether  is  the  subtle  Tejas  Tattva,  and  not  the 
Akasha.  All  the  five  subtle  Tattvas  might  no  doubt 
be  called  ethers,  but  to  use  the  term  ether  for  Akasha, 


without  any  distinguishing  epithet,  is  misleading. 
We  might  call  Akasha  the  sonoriferous  ether,  the 
Vayu  the  tangiferous  ether,  Apas  the  gustiferous 
ether,  and  Prithivi  the  odoriferous  ether.  Just  as 
there  exists  in  the  universe  the  luminiferous  ether,  an 
element  of  refined  matter  without  which  it  has  been 
found  that  the  phenomena  of  light  find  no  adequate 
explanation,  so  do  there  exist  the  four  remaining 
ethers,  elements  of  refined  matter,  without  which  it 
will  be  found  that  the  phenomena  of  sound,  touch, 
taste  and  smell  find  no  adequate  explanation. 

The  luminiferous  ether  is  supposed  by  modern 
science  to  be  matter  in  a  most  refined  state.  It  is  the 
vibrations  of  this  element  that  are  said  to  constitute 
light.  The  vibrations  are  said  to  take  place  at  right 
angles  to  the  direction  of  the  wave.  Nearly  the  same 
is  the  description  of  the  Tejas  Tattva  given  in  the 
book.  It  makes  this  Tattva  move  in  an  upward  direc 
tion,  and  the  centre  of  the  direction  is,  of  course,  the 
direction  of  the  wave.  Besides,  it  says  that  one 
whole  vibration  of  this  element  makes  the  figure  of  a 

Suppose  in  this  figure  A  B  is  the  direc 
tion  of  the  wave;  B  C  the  direction  of  the 
vibration.  C  A  is  the  line  along  which, 
seeing  that  in  expansion  the  symmetrical 
arrangements  of  the  atoms  of  a  body  are 
not  changed,  the  vibrating  atom  must  re-  A 
turn  to  its  symmetrical  position  in  the  line  A  B. 

The  Tejas  Tattva  of  the  ancients  is  then  exactly  the 

Till',   TATTYAS.  3 

luminiferous  ether  of  the  moderns,  so  far  as  the  nature 
of  the  vibration  is  concerned.  There  is  no  concep 
tion,  however,  of  the  four  remaining  ethers,  at  all 
events  in  a  direct  manner,  in  modern  science.  The 
vibrations  of  Akasha,  the  sonoriferons  ether,  consti 
tute  sound;  and  it  is  quite  necessary  to  recognize  the 
distinctive  character  of  this  form  of  motion. 

The  experiment  of  the  bell  in  a  vacuum  goes  to 
prove  that  the  vibrations  of  the  atmosphere  propagate 
sound.  Any  other  media,  however,  such  as  the  earth 
and  the  metals,  are  known  to  transmit  sound  in 
various  degrees.  There  must,  therefore,  be  some  one 
thing  in  all  these  media  which  gives  birth  to  sound — 
the  vibration  which  constitutes  sound.  That  some 
thing  is  the  Indian  Akasha.* 

But  Akasha  is  all-pervading,  just  as  is  the  lumini 
ferous  ether.  Why,  then,  is  not  sound  transmitted  to 
our  ears  when  a  vacuum  is  produced  in  the  bell-jar? 
The  real  fact  is  that  we  must  make  a  difference  between 
the  vibrations  of  the  elements  which  constitute  sound 
and  light,  etc.,  and  the  vibrations  of  the  media  which 
transmit  these  impressions  to  our  senses.  It  is  not  the 
vibrations  of  the  ethers — the  subtle  Tattvas — that 
cause  our  perceptions,  but  the  ethereal  vibrations 

*  The  reader  mis^ht  be  put  in  mind  of  the  phenomena  of  the 
telephone,  and  still  better  those  of  the  photophone.  It  is  clear 
that  the  rays  which  transmit  sound  in  the  latter  are  not  the  visual 
rays  of  the  sun.  They  are  surely  audible  rays.  The  former  are 
the  vibrations  of  the  luniinift'ivns  ether.  \Vliat  are  the  latter  ? 
The  vibrations,  of  course,  of  the  sonoriferons  ether,  the  constituent 
of  the  Indian  Prana,  which  is  called  Akasha. 


transferred  to  different  media,  which  are  so  main- 
modifications  of  gross  matter — the  Sthula  Mahft- 
bh vitas.  The  luminiferous  ether  is  present  just  as 
much  in  a  darkened  room  as  in  the  space  without. 
The  minutest  space  within  the  dimensions  of  the 
surrounding  walls  themselves  is  not  void  of  it.  For 
all  this  the  luminosity  of  the  exterior  is  not  present  in 
the  interior.  Why?  The  reason  is  that  our  ordinary 
vision  does  not  see  the  vibrations  of  the  luminiferous 
ether.  It  only  sees  the  vibrations  of  the  media  which 
the  ether  pervades.  The  capability  of  being  set  into 
ethereal  vibrations  varies  with  different  media.  In 
the  space  without  the  darkened  room  the  ether  brings 
the  atoms  of  the  atmosphere  into  the  necessary  state 
of  visual  vibration,  and  one  wide  expanse  of  light  is 
presented  to  our  view.  The  same  is  the  case  with 
every  other  object  that  we  see.  The  ether  which  per 
vades  the  object  brings  the  atoms  of  that  object  into 
the  necessary  state  of  visual  vibration.  The  strength 
of  the  ethereal  vibrations  which  the  presence  of  the 
sun  imparts  to  the  ether  pervading  our  planet  is  not 
sufficient  to  evoke  the  same  state  in  the  dead  matter 
of  the  darkening  walls.  The  internal  ether,  divided 
from  the  external  one  by  this  dead  mass,  is  itself  cut 
off  from  such  vibrations.  The  darkness  of  the  room 
is  thus  the  consequence,  notwithstanding  the  presence 
therein  of  the  luminiferous  ether.  An  electric  spark 
in  the  vacuum  of  a  bell-jar  must  needs  be  transmitted 
to  our  eyes,  because  the  glass  of  the  jar  which  stands 
in  contact  with  the  internal  luminiferous  ether  has  a 


certain  degree  of  the  capability  of  being  put  into  the 
state  of  visual  vibration,  which  from  thence  is  trans 
mitted  to  the  external  ether  and  thence  to  the  eye. 
The  same  would  never  be  the  case  if  we  were  to  use 
a  porcelain  or  an  earthen  jar.  It  is  this  capability  of 
being  put  into  the  state  of  visual  vibration  which  in 
glass  and  similar  objects  we  call  transparency. 

To  return  to  the  sonoriferous  ether  (Akasha).  Every 
form  of  gross  matter  has,  to  a  certain  extent,  which 
varies  with  varying  forms,  what  we  may  call  auditory 

I  have  now  to  say  something  about  the  nature  of 
the  vibrations.      Two  things  must  be  understood  in 
this  connection.     In  the  first  place  the  ex 
ternal  form  of  the  vibration  is  something 
like  the  hole  of  the  ear. 

It  throws  matter  which  is  subject  to  it, 
into  the  form  of  a  dotted  sheet. 
These  dots  are  little  points,  rising  above 
the  common  surface  so  as  to  produce  micro 
scopic  pits  in  the  sheet.     It  is  said  to  move 
by  fits  and  starts  (Sankrama),  and  to  move 

in  all  directions  (Sarvatogama).  That 
means  to  say  that  the  impulse  falls 
back  upon  itself  along  the  line  of  its 
former  path,  which  lies  on  all  sides  of 
the  direction  of  the  wave. 
^^^^~-'-','',''/  It  will  be  understood  that  these 

ethers  produce  in  gross  media  vibra 
tions  similar  to  their  own.     The  form,  therefore,  into 



which  the  auditory  vibrations  throw  the  atmospheric 
air  is  a  true  clue  to  the  form  of  the  ethereal  vibration. 
And  the  vibrations  of  atmospheric  air  discovered  by 
modern  science  are  similar. 

I  come  now  to  the  tangiferous  ether  (Vayu).     The 
vibrations  of  this  ether  are  described  as  being  spheri 
cal  in  form,  and  the  motion  is  said 

o^°®o%°o        to  be  at  acute  angles  to  the  wave 
)00      (Tiryak).    Such  is  the  representation 

of  these  vibrations  on  the  plane  of 
the  paper. 

The  remarks  about  the  transmis 
sion  of  sound  in  the  case  of  Akasha 
apply  here,  too,  mutatis  mutandis. 

The  gustiferous  ether  (Apas  Tattva)  is  said  to  re 
semble  in  shape  the  half  moon.  It  is,  moreover,  said 
to  move  downward.  This  direction  is  opposite  to 
that  of  the  luminiferous  ether.  This  force,  there 
fore,  causes  contraction.  Here  is  the  representation 
of  the  Apas  vibrations  on  the  plane  of  paper. 

The  process  of  contraction  will  be  considered  when 
I  come  to  the  qualities  of  the  Tattvas. 

The  odoriferous  ether  (Prithivi)  is  said  to  be  quad 
rangular  in  shape.  Thus: 



This  is  said  to  move  in  the  middle.  It  neithcr 
moves  at  right  angles,  nor  at  acute  angles,  nor  up 
wards,  nor  downwards,  but  it  moves  along  the  line  of 
the  wave.  The  line  and  the  quadrangle  are  in  the 
same  plane. 

These  are  the  forms,  and  the  modes  of  motion,  of 
the  five  ethers.  Of  the  five  sensations  of  men,  eaeli 
of  these  ethers  gives  birth  to  one,  thus: 

1.  Akasha,  sonoriferous  ether,  sound. 

2.  Vayu,  tangiferous  ether,  touch. 

3.  Tejas,  luminiferous  ether,  colour. 

4.  Apas,  gustiferous  ether,  taste. 

5.  Prithivi,  odoriferous  ether,  smell. 

in  the  process  of  evolution  these  coexisting  ethers, 
while  retaining  their  general  relative  forms  and  pri 
mary  qualities,  contract  the  qualities  of  the  other 
Tattvas.  This  is  known  as  the  process  of  Panclii- 
karana  or  division  into  five. 

If  \ve  take,  as  our  book  does,  H,  P.  R,  Y  and  L,  to 
be  the  algebraical  symbols  for  (r),  (n),  (3),  (4),  (5), 
respectively,  the  ethers  after  Panchikarana  assume  the 
following  forms: 



V       R 


(5)     I<     =    —    +      j.      +    -g-     +    y     +    -g- 

One  molecule  of  each  ether,  consisting  of  eight 
atoms,  has  four  of  the  original  principal  ethers,  and 
one  each  of  the  remaining  four. 

The  following  table  will  show  the  five  qualities  of 
each  of  the  Tattvas  after  Panchikarana. 





(I.)  II. 


(2.)    P. 

Very  light. 

Rather  cool. 


The  blue  of 
the  cloud  .  . 


(3-)  R. 

Heavy  .... 

Very  hot.  .  .  . 




(4.)  V. 





(5-)  I* 


Slightly  hot. 




It  might  be  remarked  here  that  the  subtle  Tattvas 
exist  now  in  the  universe  on  four  planes.  The  higher 
of  these  planes  differs  from  the  lower  in  having  a 
greater  number  of  vibrations  per  second.  The  four 
planes  are : 

1.  Physiological Prana. 

2.  Mental Manas. 

3.  Psychic Vijndna. 

4.  Spiritual Anaiida. 


I  shall  now,  however,  discuss  some  of  the  secondary 
qualities  of  these  Tattvas. 

1.  S/>aa\—Tliis  is  a  quality  of  the  Akasha  Tattva. 
It  has  been  asserted  that  the  vibration  of  this  ether  is 
shaped  like  the  hole  of  the  ear,  and  that  in  the  body 
thereof  are  microscopic  points  (Vindus).     It  follows, 
evidently,  that  the  interstices  between  the  points  serve 
to  give  space  to  ethereal  minima,  and  offer  them  room 
for  locomotion  (Avakasha). 

2.  Locomotion.— This    is    the    quality   of    the  Vayu 
Tattva.    Vayu  is  a  form  of  motion  itself,  for  motion  in 
all  directions  is  motion  in  a  circle,  large  or  small.    The 
Vayu  Tattva  has  itself  the  form  of  spherical  motion. 
When  to  the  motion  which  keeps  up  the  form  of  the 
different  ethers  is  added  the  stereotyped  motion  of  the 
Vayu,  locomotion  is  the  result. 

3.  Expansion. — This  is  the  quality 

of  the  Tejas  Tattva.      This  follows     / 
evidently  from  the  shape  and  form  of  ' 
motion  which  is  given  to  this  ethe-  [ 
real  vibration.     Suppose  ABC  is  a    \B' 
lump  of  metal:  ^, 

If  we  apply  to  it  a  brand  of  fire, 
the  luminiferous  ether  in  it  is  set  in  motion,  and  that 
drives  the  gross  atoms  of  the  lump  into  similar  mo 
tion.  Suppose  a  is  an  atom.  This  being  impelled  to 
assume  the  shape  of  the  Tejas,  vibration  goes  towards 
n\  and  then  takes  the  symmetrical  position  of  a".  Simi 
larly  does  every  point  change  its  place  round  the 
centre  of  the  piece  of  metal.  Ultimately  the  whole 


piece  assumes  the  shape  of  A'  B'  C'.    Expansion  is  thus 
the  result. 

4.  Contraction. — This   is   the   quality  of    the    Apas 
Tattva.     As  has  been  remarked  before,  the  direction 
of  this  ether  is  the  reverse  of   the  Agni,  and  it  is 
therefore  easy  to  understand  that  contraction  is  the 
result  of  the  play  of  this  Tattva. 

5.  Cohesive  Resistance. — This  is  the  quality  of  the 
Prithivi  Tattva.     This,  it  will  be  seen,  is  the  reverse 
of  Akasha.     Akasha  gives  room  for  locomotion,  while 
Prithivi  resists  it.     This  is  the  natural  result  of  the 
direction  and  shape  of  this  vibration.      It  covers  up 
the  spaces  of  the  Akasha. 

6.  Smoothness. — This  is  a  quality  of  the  Apas  Tattva. 
As  the  atoms  of  any  body  in  contraction  come  near  each 
other  and  assume  the  semi-lunar  shape  of  the  Apas, 
they  must  easily  glide  over  each  other.      The  very 
shape  secures  for  the  atoms  easy  motion. 

This,  I  believe,  is  sufficient  to  explain  the  general 
nature  of  the  Tattvas.  The  different  phases  of  their 
manifestation  on  all  the  planes  of  life  will  be  taken 
up  in  their  proper  places. 

IT  will  be  very  interesting  to  trace,  according  to  the 
theory  of  the  Tattvas,  the  development  of  man,  and 
the  formation  of  the  world. 

The  Tattvas,  as  we  have  already  seen,  are  the  modi 
fications  of  Svara.  Regarding  Svara,  we  find  in  our 

"In  the  Svara  are  the  Vedas  and  the  Shastras,  and 
in  the  Svara  is  music.  All  the  world  is  in  the  Svara; 
Svara  is  the  spirit  itself." 

The  proper  translation  of  the  word  Svara  is  tJic 
current  of  flic  life-wave.  It  is  that  wavy  motion 
which  is  the  cause  of  the  evolution  of  cosmic  un- 
differentiated  matter  into  the  differentiated  universe, 
and  the  involution  of  this  into  the  primary  state  of 
non-differentiation,  and  so  on,  in  and  out,  for  ever 
and  ever.  Whence  does  this  motion  come?  This 
motion  is  the  spirit  itself.  The  word  Atma  used  in 
the  book,  itself  carries  the  idea  of  eternal  motion, 
coming  as  it  does  from  the  root  ,-//,  eternal  motion; 
and  it  may  be  significantly  remarked,  that  the  root  (it 
is  connected  with,  is,  in  fact,  simply  another  form  of, 
the  roots  all,  breath,  and  as,  being.  All  these  roots 


have  for  their  original  the  sound  produced  by  the 
breath  of  animals.  In  the  Science  of  Breath  the 
technical  symbol  for  inspiration  is  sa,  and  for  expira 
tion  ha.  It  is  easy  to  see  how  these  symbols  are  con 
nected  with  the  roots  as  and  ah.  The  current  of  the 
life-wave  spoken  of  above  is  technically  called  Hansa- 
chasa,  i.e.,  the  motion  of  ha  and  sa.  The  word  Hansa, 
which  is  taken  to  mean  God,  and  is  made  so  much  of 
in  many  Sanskrit  works,  is  only  a  symbolic  represen 
tation  of  the  two  eternal  processes  of  life — ha  and  sa. 

The  primeval  current  of  the  life-wave  is,  then,  the 
same  which  in  man  assumes  the  form  of  inspiratory 
and  expiratory  motion  of  the  lungs,  and  this  is  the 
all -pervading  source  of  the  evolution  and  the  involu 
tion  of  the  universe. 

The  book  goes  on : 

"It  is  the  Svara  that  has  given  form  to  the  first 
accumulations  of  the  divisions  of  the  universe;  the 
Svara  causes  involution  and  evolution;  the  Svara  is 
God  Himself,  or  more  properly  the  Great  Power  (Ma- 

The  Svara  is  the  manifestation  of  the  impression 
on  matter  of  that  power  which  in  man  is  known  to  us 
as  the  power  which  knows  itself.  It  is  to  be  under 
stood  that  the  action  of  this  power  never  ceases.  It 
is  ever  at  work,  and  evolution  and  involution  are  the 
very  necessity  of  its  unchangeable  existence. 

The  Svara  has  two  different  states.  The  one  is 
known  on  the  physical  plane  of  life  as  the  sun-breath, 
the  other  as  the  moon-breath.  I  shall,  however,  at 


the  present  stage  of  evolution  designate  them  as  posi 
tive  and  negative  respectively.  The  period  during 
which  this  current  comes  back  to  the  point  whence  it 
started  is  known  as  the  day  and  night  of  Parabrahmaii. 
The  positive  or  evolutionary  period  is  known  as  the 
day  of  Parabrahmaii;  the  negative  or  involutionary 
portion  is  known  as  the  night  of  Parabrahmaii.  These 
nights  and  days  follow  each  other  without  break.  The 
sub-divisions  of  this  period  comprehend  all  the  phases 
of  existence,  and  it  is  therefore  necessary  to  give  here 
the  scale  of  time  according  to  the  Hindu  Shastras. 
I  shall  begin  with  a  Truti  as  the  least  division  of 



26f  Trutis  =  i  Nimesha  =  v3  second. 

18  Nimeshas  =  i  Kashtha  =  3-V.  seconds  =  8  Vipalas. 

30  Kashtha=i  Kala  =  i^  minutes  =  4  Palas. 

30  Kala=i  Mahurta  =  48  minutes  =  2  Gharis. 

30  Mahurtas=i  day  and  night  =  24  hours  =  60  Gharis. 

30  flays  and  nights  and  odd  hours  =  i   Pitrya  day  and  night  =  I 

month  and  odd  hours. 

12  months  =  i  Daiva  day  and  night  =  i  year  =  365  days,  5!^,  30',  31". 
365  Daiva  days  and  nights  =i  Daiva  year. 
4,800  Daiva  years  =  i  Satya  Yuga. 
3,600  Daiva  years  =  i  Treta  Yuga. 
2.400  Daiva  years  =  i  Dvapara  Yuga. 
1,200  Daiva  years  =  i  Kali  Yuga. 
12,000  Daiva  years-- 1  Chatur  Yuga  (four  Yugas). 
12,000  Chatur  Yugas  =  i  Daiva  Yuga. 
2,000  Daiva  Yugas  =  i  day  and  night  of  Brahma. 
365  Brahmic  days  and  nights  ~i  year  of  Brahma. 
71  Daiva  Yugas  =  i  Manvantara. 

12,000  Brahmic  years  —  i  Chatur  Yuga  of  Brahma  and  so  on. 
200  Yugas  of  Brahma  =  i  day  and  night  of  Parabrahmaii. 


These  days  and  nights  follow  each  other  in  eternal 
succession,  and  hence  eternal  evolution  and  involution. 

We  have  thus  five  sets  of  days  and  nights,  i,  Para- 
brahmic;  2,  Brahmic;  3,  Daiva;  4,  Pitrya;  5,  Manusha. 
A  sixth  is  the  Manvantaric  day,  and  the  Manvantaric 
night  (Pralaya). 

The  days  and  nights  of  Parabrahman  follow  each 
other  without  beginning  or  end.  The  night  (the 
negative  period)  and  the  day  (the  positive  period) 
both  merge  into  the  Sushumnfi  (the  conjunctive 
period)  and  emerge  into  the  other.  And  so  do  the 
other  days  and  nights.  The  days  all  through  this 
division  are  sacred  to  the  positive,  the  hotter  current, 
and  the  nights  to  the  negative,  the  cooler  current. 
The  impressions  of  names  and  forms,  and  the  power 
of  producing  an  impression,  lie  in  the  positive  phase 
of  existence.  Receptivity  is  given  birth  to  by  the 
negative  current. 

After  being  subjected  to  the  negative  phase  of  Para- 
brahman,  Prakriti,  which  follows  Parabrahman  like  a 
shadow,  has  been  saturated  with  evolutionary  recep 
tivity;  as  the  hotter  current  sets  in,  changes  are  im 
printed  upon  it,  and  it  appears  in  changed  forms. 
The  first  imprint  which  the  evolutionary  positive  cur 
rent  leaves  upon  Prakriti  is  known  as  Akasha.  Then, 
by  and  by,  come  into  existence  the  remaining  ethers. 
These  modifications  of  Prakriti  are  the  ethers  of  the 
first  stage. 

Into  these  five  ethers,  as  now  constituting  the  ob 
jective  plane,  works  on  the  current  of  the  Great 


Breath.  A  further  development  takes  place.  Different 
centres  come  into  existence.  The  Akusha  throws  them 
into  a  form  which  gives  room  for  locomotion.  With 
the  beginning  of  the  Vayu  Tattva  these  elementary 
ethers  are  thrown  into  the  form  of  spheres.  This  was 
the  beginning  ^formation,  or  what  may  also  be  called 

These  spheres  are  our  Brahmandas.  In  them  the 
ethers  assume  a  secondary  development.  The  so-called 
division  into  five  takes  place.  Well,  but  in  this  Brah- 
mic  sphere  in  which  the  new  ethers  have  good  room 
for  locomotion,  the  Tejas  Tattva  now  comes  into  play, 
and  then  the  Apas  Tattva.  Every  tattvic  quality  is 
generated  into,  and  preserved  in,  these  spheres  by 
these  currents.  With  the  Apas  the  formation  is  com 
plete.  In  process  of  time  we  have  a  centre  and  an 
atmosphere.  This  sphere  is  the  self-conscious  uni 

In  this  sphere,  according  to  the  same  process,  a  third 
ethereal  state  comes  into  existence.  In  the  cooler 
atmosphere  removed  from  the  centre  another  class  of 
centres  comes  into  existence.  These  divide  the  Brah- 
mic  state  of  matter  into  two  different  states.  After 
this  comes  into  existence  another  state  of  matter 
whose  centres  bear  the  name  of  Devas  or  suns. 

We  have  thus  four  states  of  subtle  matter  in  tbe 

1.  Prana,  life  matter,  with  the  Sun  for  centre. 

2.  Marias,  mental  matter,  with  the  Mann  for  centre. 

3.  Yijnana,  psychic  matter,  with  Brahma  for  centre. 


4.  Ananda,  spiritual  matter,  with  Parabrahman  as 
the  infinite  substratum. 

Every  higher  state  is  positive  with  regard  to  the 
lower  one,  and  every  lower  one  is  given  birth  to  by  a 
composition  of  the  positive  and  negative  phase  of  the 

i.  Prana  has  to  do  with  three  sets  of  days  and 
nights  in  the  above  division  of  time. 

(a)  Our  ordinary  days  and  nights. 

(b)  The  bright  and  dark  half  of  the  month  which 
are  called  the  Pitrya  day  and  night. 

(c)  The  northern  and  southern  halves  of  the  year, 
the  day  and  night  of  the  Devas. 

These  three  nights  acting  upon  earth-matter  impart 
to  it  the  receptivity  of  the  cool,  negative  shady  phase 
of  life-matter.  The  respective  days  coming  in  after, 
these  nights  imprint  themselves  upon  it.  The  earth 
herself  thus  becomes  a  living  being,  having  a  north 
pole,  in  which  a  central  force  draws  the  needle  towards 
itself,  and  a  south  pole  in  which  is  centred  a  force 
which  is,  so  to  say,  the  shade  of  the  north  polar  centre. 
It  has  also  always  the  solar  force  centred  in  the  eastern 
half,  and  the  lunar — the  shade  of  the  former — centred 
in  the  western  half. 

These  centres  come,  in  fact,  into  existence  even 
before  the  earth  is  manifested  on  the  gross  plane.  So 
also  do  the  centres  of  other  planets  come  into  exist 
ence.  As  the  sun  presents  himself  to  the  Maim  there 
come  into  existence  two  states  of  the  matter  in  which 
the  sun  lives  and  moves — the  positive  and  the  nega- 


tive.  As  the  solar  Prana,  after  having  been  for  some 
time  subjected  to  the  negative  shady  state,  is  subjected 
in  its  revolutionary  couise  to  the  source  of  its  posi 
tive  phase,  Mann,  the  figure  of  Manu  is  imprinted 
upon  it.  This  Manu  is,  in  fact,  the  universal  mind, 
and  all  the  planets  with  their  inhabitants  are  the 
phases  of  his  existence.  Of  this,  however,  more  here 
after.  At  present  we  see  that  earth-life  or  Terrestrial 
Prana  has  four  centres  of  force. 

The  positive  phase  acting  upon  it  when  it  has  been 
cooled  by  the  negative  current  imprints  itself  upon  it, 
and  earth-life  in  various  forms  comes  into  existence. 
The  essays  on  Prana  will  explain  this  more  clearly. 

2.  Manas  has  to  do  with  Manu.  The  suns  revolve 
round  these  centres  with  the  whole  of  their  atmo 
spheres  of  Prana.  This  system  gives  birth  to  the  I^okas 
or  spheres  of  life,  of  which  the  planets  are  one  class. 

These  Lokas  have  been  enumerated  by  Vyasa  in 
his  commentary  on  the  Yogas/uisfra  (Pada  iii.  Sutra  26). 

The  aphorism  runs  thus  : 

"By  meditation  upon  the  sun  is  obtained  a  know 
ledge  of  the  physical  creation." 

On  this  says  the  revered  commentator: 

"There  are  seven  Lokas  (spheres  of  existence)." 

1.  Bhurloka  extends  to  the  Meru. 

2.  Antarikshaloka  extends  from  the  surface  of  the 
Meru  to  the  Dhruva,  the  pole-star,  and  contains  the 
planets,  the  Nakshatras,  and  the  stars. 

3.  Svarloka   lies   beyond,   is   fivefold  and   sacred   to 


4.  Maharloka,  sacred  to  Prajapati. 

5.  Janaloka,  sacred  to  Brahma. 

6.  Taparloka,  sacred  to  Brahma. 

7.  Satyaloka,  sacred  to  Brahma. 

It  is  not  my  purpose  to  try  at  present  to  explain  the 
meaning  of  these  Lokas.  It  is  sufficient  for  my  present 
purpose  to  say  that  the  planets,  the  stars,  the  lunar 
mansions  are  all  impressions  of  Mann,  just  as  the 
organisms  of  the  earth  are  impressions  of  the  sun. 
The  solar  Prana  is  prepared  for  this  impression  during 
the  Manvantaric  night. 

Similarly  Vijriana  has  to  do  with  the  nights  and 
days  of  Brahma,  and  Ananda  with  those  of  Para- 

It  will  thus  be  seen  that  the  whole  process  of  crea 
tion,   on   whatever  plane  of  life,   is   performed  most) 
naturally  by  the  five  Tattvas  in  their  double  modifica 
tions,  the  positive  and  negative.     There  is  nothing  in 
the   universe   which   the   Universal   Tattvic   Law  of/ 
Breath  does  not  comprehend. 

After  this  very  brief  exposition  of  the  theory  of 
tattvic  evolution  comes  a  series  of  Essays,  taking  up 
all  the  subtle  states  of  matter  one  by  one,  and  describ 
ing  more  in  detail  the  working  of  the  tattvic  law  in 
those  planes,  and  also  the  manifestations  of  these 
planes  of  life  in  humanity. 



Tin?  Akasha  is  the  most  important  of  all  the 
Tattvas.  It  must,  as  a  matter  of  course,  precede  and 
follow  every  change  of  state  on  every  plane  of  life. 
Without  this  there  can  be  no  manifestation  or  cessa 
tion  of  forms.  //  is  out  of  Akasha  that  every  form 
comes,  and  it  is  in  Akasha  that  every  form  lives.  The 
Akasha  is  full  of  forms  in  their  potential  state.  It 
intervenes  between  every  two  of  the  five  Tattvas,  and 
between  every  two  of  the  five  principles. 

The  evolution  of  the  Tattvas  is  always  part  of  the 
evolution  of  a  certain  definite  form.  Thus  the  mani 
festation  of  the  primary  Tattvas  is  with  the  definite 
aim  of  giving-  what  we  may  call  a  body,  a  prakritie 
form,  to  the  Ishvara.  In  the  bosom  of  the  Infinite 
Parabrahman  there  are  hidden  innumerable  such 
centres.  One  centre  takes  under  its  influence  a  certain 
portion  of  the  Infinite,  and  there  we  find  first  of  all 
coming  into  existence  the  Akasha  Tattva.  The  ex 
tent  of  this  Akasha  limits  the  extent  of  the  universe, 
and  out  of  it  the  Ishvara  is  to  come.  To  this  end 
out  of  this  Akasha  comes  the  Vayu  Tattva.  This 


pervades  the  whole  universe  and  has  a  certain  centre 
which  serves  to  keep  the  whole  expanse  together,  aiid 
as  one  whole  separate  from  other  universes  (Brah- 

It  has  been  mentioned,  and  further  on  will  be  more 
clearly  explained,  that  every  Tattva  has  a  positive  and 
a  negative  phase.  It  is  also  evident  on  the  analogy  of 
the  sun  that  places  more  distant  from  the  centre  are 
always  negative  to  those  which  are  nearer.  We  might 
say  that  they  are  cooler  than  these,  as  it  will  be  seen 
further  on  that  heat  is  not  peculiar  to  the  sun  only, 
but  that  all  the  higher  centres  have  a  greater  amount 
of  heat  than  even  the  sun  itself. 

Well,  then,  in  this  Brahmic  sphere  of  Vayu,  except 
for  some  space  near  the  Parabrahmic  Akasha,  ever)' 
atom  of  the  Vayu  is  reacted  upon  by  an  opposite  force. 
The  more  distant  and  therefore  the  cooler  one  reacts 
upon  the  nearer  and  therefore  the  hotter.  The  equal 
and  opposite  vibrations  of  the  same  force  cancel  each 
other,  and  both  together  pass  into  the  akashic  state. 
Thus,  while  some  of  this  space  remains  filled  up  by 
the  Brahmic  Vayu  on  account  of  the  constant  outflow 
of  this  Tattva  from  the  Parabrahmic  Akasha,  the 
remainder  is  rapidly  turned  into  Akasha.  This 
Akasha  is  the  mother  of  the  Brahmic  Agni  Tattva. 
The  Agni  Tattva  working  similarly  gives  birth 
through  another  Akasha  to  the  Apas,  and  this  simi 
larly  to  the  Prithivi.  This  Brahmic  Prithivi  thus 
contains  the  qualities  of  all  the  preceding  Tattvas 
besides  a  fifth  one  of  its  own. 


The  first  stage  of  the  universe,  the  ocean  of  psychic 
matter,  has  now  come  into  existence  in  its  entirety. 
This  matter  is,  of  course,  very,  very  fine,  and  there  is 
absolutely  no  grossness  in  it  as  compared  with  the 
matter  of  the  fifth  plane.  In  this  ocean  shines  the 
intelligence  of  Ishvara,  and  this  ocean,  with  every 
thing  that  might  be  manifest  in  it,  is  the  self-conscious 

In  this  psychic  ocean,  as  before,  the  more  distant 
atoms  are  negative  to  the  nearer  ones.  Hence,  except 
a  certain  space  which  remains  filled  with  the  psychic 
Prithivi  on  account  of  the  constant  supply  of  this 
element  from  above,  the  rest  begins  to  change  into 
an  Akasha.  This  second  Akasha  is  full  of  what  are 
called  Maims  in  their  potential  state.  The  Maims  are 
so  many  groups  of  certain  mental  forms,  the  ideas  of 
the  various  genera  and  species  of  life  to  appear  further 
on.  We  have  to  do  with  one  of  these. 

Impelled  by  the  evolutionary  current  of  the  Great 
Breath,  Manu  comes  out  of  this  Akasha,  in  the  same 
way  as  Brahma  did  out  of  the  Parabrahmic  Akasha. 
First  and  uppermost  in  the  mental  sphere  is  the  Vayu, 
and  then  in  regular  order  the  Tejas,  the  Apas,  and  the 
Prithivi.  This  mental  matter  follows  the  same  laws, 
and  similarly  begins  to  pass  into  the  third  akashic  state, 
which  is  full  of  innumerable  suns.  They  come  out  in 
the  same  way,  and  begin  to  work  on  a  similar  plan, 
which  will  be  better  understood  here  than  higher  up. 

Everybody  can  here  test  for  himself  that  the  more 
distant  portions  of  the  solar  system  are  cooler  than 


the  nearer  ones.  Every  little  atom  of  Prana  is  com 
paratively  cooler  than  the  next  one  towards  the  sun 
from  itself.  Hence  equal  and  opposite  vibrations 
cancel  each  other.  Leaving,  therefore,  a  certain  space 
near  the  sun  as  always  filled  up  with  the  Tattvas  of 
Prana,  which  are  there  being  constantly  supplied  from 
the  sun,  the  rest  of  the  Prana  passes  into  the  akashic 

It  might  be  noted  down  here  that  the  whole  of  this 
Prana  is  made  np  of  innumerable  little  points.  Of 
these  points  I  shall  in  future  speak  as  Trutis,  and 
might  say  here  that  it  is  these  Trutis  which  appear  on 
the  terrestrial  plane  as  atoms  (Ann  or  Paramanu). 
They  might  be  spoken  of  as  solar  atoms.  These 
solar  atoms  are  of  various  classes  according  to  the 
prevalence  of  one  or  more  of  the  constituent  Tattvas. 

Every  point  of  Prana  is  a  perfect  picture  of  the 
whole  ocean.  Every  other  point  is  represented  in 
every  point.  Every  atom  has,  therefore,  for  its  con 
stituents,  all  the  four  Tattvas,  in  varying  proportions 
according  to  its  position  in  respect  of  others.  The 
different  classes  of  these  solar  atoms  appear  on  the 
terrestrial  plane  as  the  various  elements  of  chemistry. 

The  spectrum  of  every  terrestrial  element  reveals 
the  colour  or  colours  of  the  prevalent  Tattva  or 
Tattvas  of  a  solar  atom  of  that  substance.  The 
greater  the  heat  to  which  any  substance  is  subjected 
the  nearer  does  the  element  approach  its  solar  state. 
Heat  destroys  for  the  time  being  the  terrestrial  coat 
ings  of  the  solar  atoms. 

RKI.ATIUX    Ol-    TATTVAS    AM)    rKKXCI  I'l.ho.  23 

The  spectrum  of  sodium  thus  shows  the  presence 
of  the  yellow  Prithivi,  that  of  lithium,  the  red  Agni, 
and  the  yellow  Prithivi,  that  of  caesium,  the  red  Agni, 
tlie  green  admixture,  the  yellow  Prithivi,  and  the  blue 
Vayu.  Rubidium  shows  red,  orange,  yellow,  green 
and  blue,  i.e.,  the  Agni,  Prithivi  and  Agni,  Prithivi, 
Vayu  and  Prithivi,  and  Vayu.  These  classes  of  solar 
atoms  which  all  together  make  up  the  wide  ex 
panse  of  the  solar,  pass  into  the  akashic  state. 
While  the  sun  keeps  up  a  constant  supply  of  these 
atoms,  those  that  are  passing  into  the  akashic  state- 
pass  on  the  other  side  into  the  planetary  Vayu.  Cer 
tain  measured  portions  of  the  solar  Akasha  naturally 
separate  themselves  from  others,  according  to  the 
differing  creation  which  is  to  appear  in  those  portions. 
These  portions  of  Akasha  are  called  Lokas.  The 
earth  itself  is  a  Loka  called  the  Bhurloka.  I  shall 
take  up  the  earth  for  further  illustration  of  the 

That  portion  of  the  solar  Akasha  which  is  the 
immediate  mother  of  the  earth,  first  gives  birth  to 
the  terrestrial  Vayu.  Every  element  is  now  in  the 
state  of  the  Vayu  Tattva,  which  ma}-  now  be  called 
gaseous.  The  Vayu  Tattva  is  spherical  in  shape,  and 
thus  the  gaseous  planet  bears  similar  outlines.  The 
centre  of  this  gaseous  sphere  keeps  together  round 
itself  the  whole  expanse  of  gas.  As  soon  as  this 
gaseous  sphere  comes  into  existence,  it  is  subjected  to 
the  following  influences  among  others. 

i.  The  superposed  influence  of  the  solar  heat. 


2.  The  internal  influence  of  the  more  distant  atoms 
on  the  nearer  ones  and  vice  versa. 

The  first  influence  has  a  double  effect  upon  the 
gaseous  sphere.  It  imparts  more  heat  to  the  nearer 
hemisphere  than  to  the  more  distant  one.  The  super 
ficial  air  of  the  nearer  hemisphere  having  contracted 
a  certain  amount  of  solar  energy,  rises  towards  the 
sun.  Cooler  air  from  below  takes  its  place.  But 
where  does  the  superficial  air  go?  It  cannot  pass 
beyond  the  limit  of  the  terrestrial  sphere,  which  is 
surrounded  by  the  solar  Akaslia,  through  which  comes 
a  supply  from  the  solar  Prana.  It,  therefore,  begins 
to  move  in  a  circle,  and  thus  a  rotatory  motion  is 
established  in  the  sphere.  This  is  the  origin  of  the 
earth's  rotation  upon  its  axis. 

Again,  as  a  certain  amount  of  the  solar  energy  is 
imparted  to  the  gaseous  terrestrial  sphere,  the  impulse 
of  the  upward  motion  reaches  the  centre  itself.  That 
centre  itself,  therefore,  and  along  with  it  the  whole 
sphere,  moves  towards  the  sun.  It  cannot,  however, 
go  on  in  this  direction,  for  a  nearer  approach  would 
destroy  that  balance  of  forces  which  gives  the  earth 
its  peculiarities.  A  Loka  which  is  nearer  to  the  sun 
than  our  planet  cannot  have  the  same  conditions  of 
life.  Hence,  while  the  sun  draws  the  earth  towards 
himself,  those  laws  of  life  which  have  given  it  a  con 
stitution,  by  which  for  ages  it  must  roll  on,  keep  it  in 
the  sphere  they  have  assigned  to  it.  Two  forces  thus 
come  into  existence.  Drawn  by  one  the  earth  would 
go  towards  the  sun;  checked  by  the  other  it  must 


remain  where  it  is.  These  are  the  centrifugal  and 
the  centripetal  forces,  and  their  action  results  in 
o-ivino-  the  earth  its  annual  revolution. 

o  o 

Secondly,  the  internal  action  of  the  gaseous  atoms 
upon  each  other  ends  in  the  change  of  the  whole 
gaseous  sphere,  except  the  upper  portion,  into  the 
akashic  state.  This  akashic  state  gives  birth  to  the 
igneous  (pertaining  to  the  Agni  Tattva)  state  of  ter 
restrial  matter.  This  changes  similarly  into  the  Apas, 
and  this  again  into  the  Prithivi. 

The  same  process  obtains  in  the  changes  of  matter 
with  which  we  are  now  familiar.  An  example  will 
better  illustrate  the  whole  law. 

Take  ice.  This  is  solid,  or  what  the  Science  of 
Breath  would  call  in  the  state  of  Prithivi.  One 
quality  of  the  Prithivi  Tattva,  the  reader  will  remem 
ber,  is  cohesive  resistance.  Let  us  apply  heat  to  this 
ice.  This  heat  as  it  passes  into  the  ice  is  indicated  by 
the  thermometer.  When  the  temperature  rises  to  78' 
the  ice  changes  its  state.  But  the  thermometer  no 
longer  indicates  the  same  amount  of  heat;  78°  of  heat 
have  become  latent. 

Let  us  now  apply  536"  of  heat  to  a  pound  of  boiling 
water.  As  is  generally  known,  this  great  quantity  of 
heat  becomes  latent  while  the  water  passes  into  the 
gaseous  state. 

Now,  let  us  follow  the  reverse  process.  To  gaseous 
water  let  us  apply  a  certain  amount  of  cold.  When 
this  cold  becomes  sufficient  to  entirely  counteract  the 
heat  which  keeps  it  in  the  gaseous  state,  the  vapour 


passes  into  the  akashic  state,  and  from  thence  into 
the  Tejas  state.  It  is  not  necessary  that  the  whole  of 
the  vapour  should  at  once  pass  into  the  next  state. 
The  change  is  gradual.  As  the  cold  is  gradually 
passing  into  the  vapour,  the  Tejas  modification  is 
gradually  appearing  out  of,  and  through  the  interven 
tion  of,  the  Akasha,  into  which  it  had  passed  during 
latency.  This  is  being  indicated  on  the  thermometer. 
When  the  whole  has  passed  into  the  igneous  state, 
and  the  thermometer  has  indicated  536°,  the  second 
Akasha  comes  into  existence.  Out  of  this  second 
Akasha  comes  the  liquid  state  at  the  same  tempera 
ture,  the  whole  heat  having  again  passed  into  the 
akashic  state,  and  therefore  is  no  longer  indicated  by 
the  thermometer. 

When  cold  is  applied  to  this  liquid,  heat  again 
begins  to  come  out,  and  when  it  reaches  78",  this  heat 
having  come  out  of  and  through  the  Akasha  into 
which  it  had  passed,  the  whole  liquid  has  passed 
into  the  igneous  state.  Here  it  again  begins  to  pass 
into  the  akashic  state.  The  thermometer  begins  to 
fall  down,  and  out  of  this  Akasha  begins  to  come  the 
Prithivi  state  of  water — ice. 

Thus  we  see  that  the  heat  which  is  given  out  by  the 
influence  of  cold  passes  into  the  akashic  state,  which 
becomes  the  substratum  of  a  higher  phase,  and  the 
heat  which  is  absorbed  passes  into  another  akashic  state, 
which  becomes  the  substratum  of  a  lower  phase. 

It  is  in  this  way  that  the  terrestrial  gaseous  sphere 
changes  into  its  present  state.  The  experiment  de- 


scribed  above  points  out  many  important  truths  about 
the  relation  of  these  Tattvas  to  each  other. 

First  of  all  it  explains  that  very  important  assertion 
of  the  Science  of  Breath  which  says  that  every  suc 
ceeding  tattvic  state  has  the  qualities  of  all  the  fore 
going  tattvic  states.  Thus  we  see  that  as  the  gaseous 
state  of  water  is  being  acted  upon  by  cold,  the  latent 
heat  of  steam  is  being  cancelled  and  passing  into  the 
akashic  state.  This  cannot  but  be  the  case,  since 
equal  and  opposite  vibrations  of  the  same  force  always 
cancel  each  other,  and  the  result  is  the  Akasha.  Out 
of  this  comes  the  Tejas  state  of  matter.  This  is  that 
state  in  which  the  latent  heat  of  steam  becomes 
patent.  It  will  be  observed  this  state  has  no  perma 
nence.  The  Tejas  form  of  water,  as  indeed  of  any 
other  substance,  cannot  exist  for  any  length  of  time, 
because  the  major  part  of  terrestrial  matter  is  in  the 
lower  and  therefore  more  negative  states  of  Apas  and 
Prithivi,  and  whenever  for  an}-  cause  any  substance 
passes  into  the  Tejas  state,  the  surrounding  objects 
begin  at  once  to  react  upon  it  with  such  strength  as  at 
once  to  force  it  into  the  next  akashic  state.  Those 
things  which  now  live  in  the  normal  state  of  the 
Apas  or  the  Prithivi  find  it  quite  against  the  laws  of 
their  existence  to  remain,  except  under  external  in 
fluence,  in  the  Tejas  (igneous)  state.  Thus  an  atom 
of  gaseous  water  before  passing  into  the  liquid  state 
has  already  remained  in  the  three  states,  the  akashic, 
the  gaseous,  and  the  Tejas.  It  must,  therefore,  have 
all  the  qualities  of  the  three  Tattvas,  and  so  it  no 


doubt  has.     Cohesive  resistance  is  only  wanted,  and 
that  is  the  quality  of  the  Prithivi  Tattva. 

Now  when  this  atom  of  liquid  water  passes  into  the 
icy  state,  what  do  we  see?  All  the  states  which  have 
preceded  must  again  show  themselves.  Cold  will 
cancel  the  latent  heat  of  the  liquid  state,  and  the 
akashic  state  will  come  out.  Out  of  this  akashic 
state  is  sure  to  come  the  gaseous  state.  This  gaseous 
(Vayava)  state  is  evidenced  by  the  gyrations  and  other 
motions  which  are  set  up  in  the  body  of  the  liquid  by 
the  mere  application  of  the  cold.  The  motion,  how 
ever,  is  not  of  very  long  duration,  and  as  they  are 
ceasing  (passing  into  the  akashic  state)  the  Tejas  state 
is  coming  out.  This,  too,  however,  is  not  of  long 
duration,  and  as  this  is  passing  into  the  akashic  state, 
the  ice  is  coming  into  existence. 

It  will  be  easy  to  see  that  all  the  four  states  of  terres 
trial  matter  exist  in  our  sphere.  The  gaseous  (Vayava) 
is  there  in  what  we  now  call  the  atmosphere;  the 
igneous  (Tejas)  is  the  normal  temperature  of  earth 
life;  the  liquid  (Apas)  is  the  ocean;  the  solid  (Par- 
thiva)  is  the  terra  firma.  None  of  these  states,  how 
ever,  exists  quite  isolated  from  the  other.  Each  is 
constantly  invading  the  domain  of  the  other,  and  thus 
it  is  difficult  to  find  any  portion  of  space  filled  up  only 
with  matter  in  one  state.  The  two  adjacent  Tattvas 
are  found  intermixed  with  each  other  to  a  greater 
extent  than  those  that  are  removed  from  each  other 
by  an  intermediate  state.  Thus  Prithivi  will  be  found 
mixed  up  to  a  greater  extent  with  water  than  with 


Ao-ni  and  Vayu,  Apas  with  Agni  than  with  Vayu,  and 
Vayu  with  Agni  more  than  with  any  othtr.  It  would 
thus  appear  from  the  above,  according  to  the  science 
of  Tattvas,  that  the  flame  and  other  luminous  bodies 
on  earth  are  not  in  the  terrestrial  Tejas  (igneous)  state. 
They  are  in  or  near  the  solar  state  of  matter. 




PRANA,  as  already  expressed,  is  that  state  of  tattvic 
matter  which  surrounds  the  sun,  and  in  which  move 
the  earth  and  other  planets.  It  is  the  next  state  above 
terrestrial  matter.  The  terrestrial  sphere  is  separated 
from  the  solar  Prana  by  an  Akasha.  This  Akasha  is 
the  immediate  mother  of  the  terrestrial  Vayu  whose 
native  colour  is  blue.  It  is  on  this  account  that  the 
sky  looks  blue. 

Although  at  this  point  in  the  heavens,  the  Prana 
changes  into  the  Akasha,  which  gives  birth  to  the 
terrestrial  Vayu,  the  rays  of  the  sun  which  fall  on  the 
sphere  from  without  are  not  stopped  on  their  inward 
journey.  They  are  refracted,  but  move  onwards  into 
the  terrestrial  sphere  all  the  same.  Through  these 
rays  the  ocean  of  Prana,  which  surrounds  our  sphere, 
exerts  upon  it  an  organizing  influence. 

The  terrestrial  Prana — the  earth-life  which  appears 
in  the  shape  of  all  the  living  organisms  of  our  planet 
—is,  as  a  whole,  nothmg  more  than  a  modification  of 
the  solar  Prana. 

PR  AN  A.  31 

As  the  earth  moves  round  her  own  axis  and  round 
the  sun,  twofold  centres  are  developed  in  the  terres 
trial  Prana.  During  the  diurnal  rotation  every  plaee, 
as  it  is  subjected  to  the  direct  influence  of  the  sun, 
sends  forth  the  positive  life-current  from  tJic  cast  to  the 
wsf.  During  the  night  the  same  place  sends  forth 
the  negative  current. 

In  the  annual  course  the  positive  current  travels 
from  I/it  nortli  to  the  south  during  the  six  months  of 
summer — the  day  of  the  Devas,  and  the  negative 
during  the  remaining  six  months — the  night  of  the 

The  north  and  east  are  thus  sacred  to  the  positive 
current;  the  opposite  quarters  to  the  negative  current. 
The  sun  is  the  lord  of  the  positive  current,  the  moon 
that  of  the  negative,  because  the  negative  solar  Prana 
comes  during  the  night  to  the  earth  from  the  moon. 

The  terrestrial  Prana  is  thus  an  ethereal  being  with 
double  centres  of  work.  The  first  is  the  northern,  the 
second  the  southern.  The  two  halves  of  these  centres 
are  the  eastern  and  western  centres.  During  the  six 
months  of  summer  the  current  of  life  runs  from  the 
north  to  the  south,  and  during  the  months  of  winter 
the  negative  current  goes  the  other  way. 

With  every  month,  with  every  day,  with  every 
Nimesha,  this  current  completes  a  minor  course,  and 
while  the  current  continues  in  its  course  the  diurnal 
rotation  gives  it  an  eastern  or  a  western  direction. 
The  northern  current  runs  during  the  day  of  man 
from  east  to  west,  during  the  night  from  west  to 


east.  The  directions  of  the  other  current  are  respec 
tively  opposite  to  the  above.  So  practically  there  are 
only  two  directions — the  eastern  and  western.  The 
difference  of  the  northern  and  southern  currents  is 
not  practically  felt  in  terrestrial  life.  These  two  cur 
rents  produce  in  the  terrestrial  Prana  two  distinguish 
able  modifications  of  the  composing  ethers.  The  rays 
of  either  of  these  ethereal  modifications,  proceeding 
from  their  different  centres,  run  into  each  other — the 
one  giving  life,  strength,  form,  and  various  qualities 
to  the  other.  Along  the  rays  emerging  from  the 
northern  centre,  run  the  currents  of  the  positive  Prana ; 
along  those  emerging  from  the  southern,  the  currents 
of  the  negative  Prana.  The  eastern  and  western 
channels  of  these  currents  are  respectively  called 
Pingala  and  Ida,  two  of  the  celebrated  Nadis  of  the 
Tantrists.  It  will  be  better  to  discuss  the  other  bear 
ings  of  Prana  when  we  have  localized  it  in  the  human 

The  inmiencc  of  this  terrestrial  Prana  develops  two 
centres  of  action  in  the  gross  matter  which  is  to  form 
a  human  body.  Part  of  the  matter  gathers  round  the 
northern,  and  part  round  the  southern  centre.  The 
northern  centre  develops  into  the  brain;  the  southern 
into  the  heart.  The  general  shape  of  the  terrestrial 
Prana  is  something  like  an  ellipse.  In  this  the  north 
ern  focus  is  the  brain ;  the  southern  the  heart.  The 
column  along  which  the  positive  matter  gathers  runs 
between  these  foci. 

The  line  in  the  middle  is  the  place  where  the  eastern 

PRAXA.  7,7, 

and  western — right  and  left — divisions  of  the  column 
join.  The  column  is  the  medulla  ollotigata.  The  cen 
tral  line  is  also  Sushumna,  the  right  and  left  divisions 
being  the  Pingala  and  Ida.  The  rays  of  Prana  which 
diverge  either  way  from  these  Nadis  are  only  their 
ramifications,  and  constitute  together  with  them  the 
nervous  system. 

The  negative  Prana  gathers  round  the  southern 
centre.  This,  too,  takes  a  form  similar  to  the  former. 
The  right  and  left  divisions  of  this  column  are  the 
right  and  left  divisions  of  the  heart. 

Each  division  has  two  principal  branches,  each  of 
which  subdivides  into  minor  ramifications.  The  two 
openings  either  way  are  one  a  vein,  and  one  an  artery, 
the  four  opening  into  four  chambers — the  four  petals 
of  the  lotus  of  the  heart.  The  right  part  of  the  heart 
again,  with  all  its  ramifications,  is  called  Pingala,  the 
left  Ida,  and  the  middle  part  Sushumna. 

There  is  reason  to  think,  however,  that  the  heart 
only  is  spoken  of  as  the  lotus,  while  the  three  fore 
going  names  are  set  apart  for  the  nervous  system. 
The  current  of  Prana  works  forward  and  backward, 
in  and  out.  The  cause  of  this  lies  in  the  momentary 
changes  of  the  being  of  Prana.  As  the  year  advances, 
every  moment  a  change  of  state  L\kes  place  in  the 
terrestrial  Prana,  on  account  of  the  varying  strengths 
of  the  solar  and  lunar  currents.  Thus,  every  moment 
is,  strictly  speaking,  a  new  being  of  Prana.  As  Buddha 
says,  all  life  is  momentary.  The  moment  which  is  the 
first  to  throw  into  matter  the  germ  which  will  develop 


the  two  centres,  is  the  first  cause  of  organized  life.  If 
the  succeeding  moments  are  in  their  tattvic  effect 
friendly  to  the  first  cause,  the  organism  gains  strength 
and  develops;  if  not,  the  impulse  is  rendered  fruitless. 
The  general  effect  of  these  succeeding  moments  keeps 
up  general  life ;  but  the  impulse  of  any  one  moment 
tends  to  pass  off  as  the  others  come  in.  A  system  of 
forward  and  backward  motion  is  thus  established. 
One  moment  of  Prana  proceeding  from  the  centre  of 
action  goes  to  the  farthest  ends  of  the  gross  vessels — 
vascular  and  neural — of  the  organism.  The  succeed 
ing  moment  gives  it,  however,  the  backward  impulse. 
A  few  moments  are  taken  in  the  completion  of  the 
forward  impulse,  and  the  determination  of  the  back 
ward  one.  This  period  differs  in  different  organisms. 
As  the  Prana  runs  forward,  the  lungs  inspire;  as  it 
recedes,  the  process  of  expiration  sets  in. 

The  Prana  moves  in  the  Pingala  when  it  moves 
from  the  northern  centre  towards  the  east,  and  from 
the  southern  towards  the  west ;  it  moves  in  Ida  when 
it  moves  from  the  northern  centre  towards  the  west, 
and  from  the  southern  centre  towards  the  east.  This 
means  that  in  the  former  case  the  Prana  moves  from 
the  brain,  towards  the  right,  through  the  heart,  to  the 
left  and  back  to  the  brain;  and  from  the  heart  to  the 
left  through  the  brain  to  the  right  back  to  the  heart. 
In  the  latter  the  case  is  the  reverse.  To  use  other 
terms,  in  the  former  case  the  Prana  moves  from  the 
nervous  system  to  the  right  through  the  system  of 
blood-vessels,  to  the  left,  and  back  again  to  the  ner- 

PRAXA.  ^c 

vous  system  ;  or,  from  the  system  of  blood-vessels,  to 
the  left,  through  the  nervous  system,  to  the  right,  and 
back  again  to  the  system  of  blood-vessels.  These 
two  currents  co'incide.  In  the  latter  the  case  is  the 
reverse.  The  left  part  of  the  body  containing  both 
the  nerves  and  the  blood-vessels  may  be  called  Ida, 
the  right,  Pingala.  The  right  and  left  bronchi  form 
as  well  the  parts  respectively  of  Pingala  and  Ida,  as 
any  other  parts  of  the  right  and  left  divisions  of  the 
body.  But  what  is  Sushumna?  One  of  the  names  of 
Sushumna  is  Sandhi,  the  place  where  the  two— Ida 
and  Pingala— join.  It  is  really  that  place  from  which 
the  Prana  may  move  either  way — right  or  left — or, 
under  certain  conditions,  both  ways.  It  is  that  place 
which  the  Prana  must  pass  when  it  changes  from  the 
right  to  the  left  and  from  the  left  to  the  right.  It  is, 
therefore,  both  the  spinal  canal  and  the  cardiac  canal. 
The  spinal  canal  extends  from  the  Brahmarandhra, 
the  northern  centre  of  Prana  through  the  whole  verte 
bral  column  (Brahmadanda).  The  cardiac  canal  ex 
tends  from  the  southern  centre  midway  between  the 
two  lobes  of  the  heart.  As  the  Prana  moves  from  the 
spinal  canal  to  the  right  hand  towards  the  heart,  the 
right  lung  works;  the  breath  coming  in  and  going 
out  at  the  right  nostril.  When  it  reaches  the  southern 
canal,  one  cannot  feel  the  breath  from  either  nostril. 
As,  however,  it  goes  out  of  the  cardiac  canal  to  the 
left,  the  breath  begins  to  come  from  the  left  nostril, 
and  flows  through  that  until  the  Prana  again  reaches 
the  spinal  canal.  There,  again,  one  ceases  to  feel  the 


breath  from  either  nostril.  The  effect  of  these  two 
positions  of  Prana  is  identical  npon  the  flow  of  breath, 
and,  therefore,  both  the  northern  and  southern  canals 
are  designated  by  Sushumna.  If  we  may  speak  in 
this  way,  let  us  imagine  that  a  plane  passes  midway 
between  the  spinal  and  cardiac  canals.  This  plane 
will  pass  through  the  hollow  of  the  Sushumna.  But 
let  it  be  understood  that  there  is  no  such  plane  in 
reality.  It  will  perhaps  be  more  correct  to  say  that  as 
the  rays  of  the  positive  Ida  and  Pingala  spread  both 
ways  as  nerves,  and  those  of  the  negative  similarly  as 
blood-vessels,  the  rays  of  the  Snshninna  spread  all 
over  the  body  midway  between  the  nerves  and  blood 
vessels — the  positive  and  negative  Nadis.  The  follow 
ing  is  the  description  of  Sushumna  in  the  Science  of 
Breath : 

"When  the  breath  goes  in  and  out,  one  moment  by 
the  left  and  the  other  by  the  right  nostril,  that  too  is 
Sushumna.  When  Prana  is  in  that  Nadi,  the  fires  of 
death  burn;  this  is  called  Vishuna.  When  it  moves 
one  moment  in  the  right,  and  the  other  in  the  left,  let 
it  be  called  the  unequal  state  (Vislmnabhava) ;  when 
it  moves  through  both  at  once,  the  wise  have  called  it 


"  [It  is  Sushumna]  at  the  time  of  the  passing  of  the 
Prana  from  the  Ida  into  the  Pingala,  or  vice  versa;  and 
also  of  the  change  of  one  Tattva  into  another." 

Then  the  Sushumna  has  two  other  functions.  It  is 
called  Vedo-Veda  in  one  of  its  manifestations,  and 

PR  AN  A.  07 

Sandhyasandhi  in  the  other.  As,  however,  the  right 
and  left  directions  of  the  cardiac  Prana  coincide  with 
the  left  and  right  of  the  spinal  current,  there  are  some 
writers  who  dispense  with  the  double  Sushumna. 
According  to  them  the  spinal  canal  alone  is  the 
Sushumna.  The  Utttirngitd  and  the  Shatachakra 
Nintpana  are  works  which  favour  this  view.  This 
method  of  explanation  takes  away  a  good  deal  of 
difficulty.  The  highest  recommendation  of  this  view 
is  its  comparative  simplicity.  The  right  side  current 
from  the  heart,  and  the  left  side  current  from  the 
spine,  may  both,  without  any  difficulty,  be  taken  as 
the  left  side  spinal  currents,  as  may  the  remaining  two 
currents  be  deemed  spinal  currents  of  the  right  side. 

One  more  consideration  is  in  favour  of  this  view. 
The  nervous  system  represents  the  sun,  the  system  of 
blood-vessels  the  moon.  Hence  the  real  force  of  life 
dwells  in  the  nerves.  The  positive  and  negative — the 
solar  and  lunar — phases  of  life  matter  are  only  dif 
ferent  phases  of  Prana,  the  solar  matter.  The  more 
distant,  and,  for  that  reason,  the  cooler  matter  is  nega 
tive  to  that  which  is  nearer  ami  hotter.  It  is  solar 
life  which  manifests  itself  in  the  various  phases  of  the 
moon.  To  pass  out  of  technicalities,  it  is  nervous 
force  which  manifests  itself  in  various  forms,  in  the 
system  of  blood-vessels.  The  blood-vessels  are  only 
the  receptacles  of  nervous  force.  Hence,  in  the  ner 
vous  system,  the  real  life  of  the  gross  body  are  the 
true  Ida,  Pingala,  and  Sushumna.  These  are,  in  such 
a  case,  the  spinal  column,  and  the  right  and  left  sym- 


pathetics,  with  all  their  ramifications  throughout  the 

The  development  of  the  two  centres  is  thus  the 
first  stage  in  the  development  of  the  foetus.  The 
matter  which  gathers  up  under  the  influence  of  the 
northern  centre  is  the  spinal  column;  the  matter 
which  gathers  up  round  the  southern  centre  is  the 
heart.  The  diurnal  rotation  divides  these  columns  or 
canals  into  the  right  and  left  divisions.  Then  the 
correlative  influence  of  these  two  centres  upon  each 
other  develops  an  upper  and  lower  division  in  each 
of  these  centres.  This  happens  somewhat  in  the 
same  way,  and  on  the  same  principle,  as  a  Leyden 
jar  is  charged  with  positive  electricity  by  a  negative 
rod.  Each  of  these  centres  is  thus  divided  into  four 
parts :  i ,  the  right  side  positive ;  2,  the  left  side  positive  ; 
3,  the  right  side  negative;  4,  the  left  side  negative. 
In  the  heart  these  four  divisions  are  called  the  right 
and  left  auricles  and  ventricles.  The  Tantras  style 
these  four  divisions  the  four  petals  of  the  cardiac 
lotus,  and  indicate  them  by  various  letters.  The  posi 
tive  petals  of  the  heart  form  the  centre  from  which 
proceed  the  positive  blood-vessels — the  arteries;  the 
negative  petals  are  the  starting  points  of  the  negative 
blood-vessels — the  veins.  This  negative  Prana  is 
pregnant  with  ten  forces:  i,  Prana;  2,  Apana;  3, 
Sainana;  4,  Vyana;  5,  Udana;  6,  Krikila;  7,  Naga; 
8,  Devadatta;  9,  Dhananjaya;  TO,  Kurma.  These 
ten  forces  are  called  Vayus.  The  word  Vayu  is 
derived  from  the  root  va>  to  move,  and  means  nothing 

PRAlsA.  jy 

more  than  a  ////;//:  v;  power.  The  Tantrists  must  not 
be  understood  to  define  it  as  a  gas.  Hence  I  shall 
speak  in  future  of  these  Vayus  as  the  forces  or  motive 
powers  of  Prana.  These  ten  manifestations  of  Prana 
are  by  some  reduced  to  the  first  five  alone,  holding 
that  the  remaining  ones  arc  only  modifications  of  the 
former,  which  are  the  all-important  of  the  functions 
of  Prana.  This,  however,  is  only  a  question  of  divi 
sion.  From  the  left  side  positive  petal  the  Prana 
gathers  up  into  a  Nadi,  which  ramifies  within  tin 
chest  into  the  lungs,  and  again  gathers  up  into  a  Nadi 
which  opens  into  the  right  side  negative  petal.  This 
entire  course  forms  something  like  a  circle  (Chakra). 
This  Nadi  is  called  in  modern  science  the  pulmonary 
artery  and  vein.  Two  lungs  come  into  existence  by 
the  alternate  workings  of  the  positive  and  negative 
Pranas  of  the  eastern  and  western  powers. 

Similarly  from  the  right  side  positive  petal  branch 
several  Nadis,  which  go  both  upwards  and  downwards 
in  two  directions — the  former  under  the  influence  of 
the  northern,  the  latter  under  the  influence  of  the 
southern  powers.  Both  these  Nadis  open  after  a  cir 
cular  march  throughout  the  upper  and  lower  portions 
of  the  body  into  the  left  side  negative  petal. 

Between  the  left  side  positive  and  the  right  side 
negative  petal  is  one  Chakra  (disc).  This  Chakra 
comprises  the  pulmonary  artery,  the  lungs  and  the 
pulmonary  vein.  The  chest  gives  room  to  this 
Chakra,  which  is  positive  with  respect  to  the  lower 
portions  of  the  body,  where  run  the  ramifications  of 


the  lower  Cliakra,  which  latter  joins  the  right  side 
positive  and  the  left  side  negative  petals. 

In  the  above-mentioned  Chakra  (in  the  cavity  of 
the  chest)  is  the  seat  of  Prana,  the  first  and  most 
important  of  the  ten  manifestations.  Inspiration  and 
expiration  being  a  true  index  to  the  changes  of  Prana, 
the  pulmonary  manifestations  thereof  have  the  same 
name.  With  the  changes  of  Prana  we  have  a  corres 
ponding  change  in  the  other  functions  of  life.  The 
lower  negative  Chakra  contains  the  principal  seats  of 
some  of  the  other  manifestations  of  life.  This  Apana 
is  located  in  the  long  intestine;  Samana  in  the  navel; 
and  so  on.  Udana  is  located  in  the  throat;  Vyana  all 
over  the  body.  Udana  causes  belching;  Kurma  causes 
the  eyes  to  shut  and  open;  Krikila  in  the  stomach 
causes  hunger.  In  short,  proceeding  from  the  four 
petals  of  the  heart  we  have  an  entire  network  of  these 
blood-vessels.  There  are  two  sets  of  these  blood 
vessels  lying  side  by  side  in  every  part  of  the  body,  con 
nected  by  innumerable  little  channels — the  capillaries. 

We  read  in  the  Prashnopanishad : 

"  From  the  heart  [ramify  the]  Nadis.  Of  these  there 
are  101  principal  ones  [Pradhana  Nadis].  Each  of  these 
branches  into*  100;  each  of  these  again  into  72,000." 

Thus,  there  are  10,100  branch  Nadis  and  727,200,000 
still  smaller  ones,  or  what  are  called  Twig-Nadis.  The 
terminology  is  imitated  from  a  tree.  The  root  is  in 
the  heart.  From  this  proceeds  various  stems.  These 
ramify  into  branch-vessels  and  these  again  into  twig- 
vessels;  all  these  Nadis  put  together  are  727,210,201. 

PRAXA.  41 

Now,  ol  these  the  Sushumna  is  the  one;  the  rest 
are  divided  half  and  half  over  the  two  halves  of  the 
body.  So  we  read  in  the  Kathopanishad  (6th  Valli, 
1 6th  Mantra): 

"A  hundred  and  one  Nadis  are  connected  with  the 
heart.  Of  these  one  passes  out  into  the  head.  Going 
out  by  that  one  becomes  immortal.  The  others  be 
come  the  cause  in  sending  the  life  principle  out  of 
various  other  states." 

This  one  that  goes  to  the  head,  remarks  the  com 
mentator,  is  the  Sushumna.  The  Sushumna  then  is 
that  Nadi,  whose  nervous  substratum  or  reservoir  of 
force  is  the  spine.  Of  the  remaining  principal  Nadis, 
the  Ida  is  the  reservoir  of  the  life  force  which  works 
in  the  left  part  of  the  body,  having  fifty  principal 
Nadis.  So  also  has  the  right  part  of  the  body  fifty 
principal  Nadis.  These  go  on  dividing  as  above. 
The  Nadis  of  the  third  degree  become  so  minute  as 
to  be  only  visible  by  a  microscope.  The  ramifications 
of  the  Sushumna  all  over  the  body  serve  during  life 
to  carry  the  Prana  from  the  positive  to  the  negative 
portions  of  the  body,  and  vice  versa.  In  the  case  of 
the  blood  these  are  the  modern  capillaries. 

The  Vedantins,  of  course,  take  the  heart  to  be  the 
starting  point  of  this  ramification.  The  Yogis,  how 
ever,  proceed  from  the  navel.  Thus  in  the  book  on 
the  Science  of  Breath  we  read: 

"From  the  root  in  the  navel  proceed  72,000  Nadis 
spreading  all  over  the  body.  There  sleeps  the  goddess 
Kundalini  like  a  serpent.  From  this  centre  [the 


navel]  ten  Nadis  go  upwards,  ten  downwards,  and 
two  and  two  crookedly." 

The  number  72,000  is  the  result  of  their  own  peculiar 
reckoning.  It  matters  little  which  division  we  adopt 
if  we  understand  the  truth  of  the  case. 

Along  these  Nadis  run  the  various  forces  which  form 
and  keep  up  the  physiological  man.  These  channels 
gather  up  into  various  parts  of  the  body  as  centres  of 
the  various  manifestations  of  Prana.  It  is  like  water 
falling  from  a  hill,  gathering  into  various  lakes,  each 
lake  letting  out  several  streams.  These  centres  are: 

i,  hand  power  centres;  2,  foot  power  centres;  3, 
speech  power  centres;  4,  excretive  power  centres;  5, 
generative  power  centres;  6,  digestive  and  absorbing 
power  centres;  7,  breathing  power  centres;  8,  the 
five  sense  power  centres. 

Those  of  these  Nadis  which  proceed  to  the  outlets 
of  the  body  perform  the  most  important  functions  of 
the  body,  and  they  are  hence  said  to  be  the  ten  prin 
cipal  ones  in  the  whole  system.  These  are: 

1.  Gandhari  goes  to  the  left  eye. 

2.  Hastijihva  goes  to  the  right  eye. 

3.  Piisha  goes  to  the  right  ear. 

4.  Yashasvini  goes  to  the  left  ear. 

5.  Alambusha,   or  Alammukha   (as  it  is  variously 
spelt  in  one  MS.),  goes  to  the  mouth.     This  evidently 
is  the  alimentary  canal. 

6.  Kuhu  pr>es  to  the  generative  organs. 

7.  Shankhini  goes  to  the  excretive  organs. 

8.  Ida  leads  to  the  left  nostril  of  the  nose. 



9.  Pi n gala  leads  to  the  right  nostril.     It  appears  that 
these  names  are  given  to  these  local  Nadis,  for  the 
same  reason  that  the  pulmonary  manifestation  of  Prana 
is  known  by  the  same  name. 

10.  Sushumna  has    already  been    explained    in  its 
various  phases  and  manifestations. 

There  are  two  more  outlets  of  the  body,  which  re 
ceive  their  natural  development  in  the  female — the 
breasts.  It  is  quite  possible  that  the  Nadi  Damini,  of 
which  no  specific  mention  has  been  made,  might  go 
to  one  of  these.  Whatever  it  be,  the  principle  of  the 
division  and  classification  is  clear,  and  this  is  some 
thing  actually  gained. 

Left  Side. 

Ri-'ht  Side. 

Centres  of  moral  and  intellectual  powers  also  exist 
111  the  system.     Thus  we  read  in  the  Vhhrainopani 
(the  above  figure  will  serve  to  illustrate  the  translation): 


1.  "While  the  minds  rests  in  the  eastern  portion  [or 
petal],  which  is  white  in  colour,  then  it  is  inclined 
towards  patience,  generosity,  and  reverence. 

2.  "While    the    mind    rests    in    the    south-eastern 
portion,  which   is  red  in  colour,  then  it  is  inclined 
towards  sleep,  torpor,  and  evil  inclination. 

3.  "While  the  mind  rests  in  the  southern  portion, 
which  is  black  in  colour,  then  it  is  inclined  towards 
anger,  melancholy,  and  bad  tendencies. 

4.  "While    the    mind    rests    in    the   south-western 
portion,  which  is  blue  in  colour,  then  it  is  inclined 
towards  jealousy  and  cunning. 

5.  "While  the  mind  rests  in  the  western  portion, 
which  is  brown  in  colour,  then  it  is  inclined  towards 
smiles,  amorousness,  and  jocoseness. 

6.  "While    the    mind    rests    in    the    north-western 
portion,  which  is  indigo  in  colour,  then  it  is  inclined 
towards  anxiety,  restless  dissatisfaction,  and  apathy. 

7.  "While  the  mind  rests  in  the  northern  portion, 
which  is  yellow  in  colour,  then  it  is  inclined  towards 
love  and  enjoyment  and  adornment. 

8.  "While    the    mind    rests    in    the    north-eastern 
portion,  which  is  white  in  colour,  then  it  is  inclined 
towards  pity,  forgiveness,  reflection  and  religion. 

9.  "While  the  mind  rests  in  the  Sandhis  [conjunc 
tions]  of  these  portions,  then  arise  disease  and  confusion 
in  body  and  home,  and  the  mind  inclines  towards  the 
three  humours. 

10.  "While  the  mind  rests  in  the  middle  portion, 
which   is   violet   in   colour,  then  consciousness   goes 

PRANA.  45 

beyond  the  qualities  [the  three  qualities  of  Maya],  and 
it  inclines  towards  intelligence." 

When  anyone  of  these  centres  is  in  action,  the  mind 
is  conscious  of  the  same  kind  of  feeling,  and  inclines 
towards  it.  Mesmeric  passes  serve  only  to  excite  these 

These  centres  are  located  in  the  head  as  well  as  in 
the  chest,  and  also  in  the  abdominal  region  and  the 
loins,  etc. 

It  is  these  centres,  together  with  the  heart  itself, 
that  bear  the  name  of  Pad  mas,  or  Kamalas  (lotuses). 
Some  of  these  are  large,  some  small,  very  small.  A 
tantrik  lotus  is  of  the  type  of  a  vegetable  organism, 
a  root  with  various  branches.  These  centres  are  the 
reservoirs  of  various  powers,  and  hence  the  roots  of 
the  Padmas;  the  Nadis  ramifying  from  these  centres 
are  their  various  branches. 

The  nervous  plexuses  of  the  modern  anatomists 
coincide  with  these  centres.  From  what  has  been  said 
above  it  will  appear  that  the  centres  are  constituted 
by  blood-vessels.  But  the  only  difference  between  the 
nerves  and  the  blood-vessels  is  the  difference  between 
the  vehicles  of  the  positive  and  negative  Pranas.  The 
nerves  are  the  positive,  the  blood-vessels  the  negative 
system  of  the  body.  Wherever  there  arc  nerves  there 
are  corresponding  blood-vessels.  Both  of  them  are 
indiscriminately  called  Nadis.  One  set  has  for  its 
centre  the  lotus  of  the  heart,  the  other  the  thousand- 
petalled  lotus  of  the  brain.  The  system  of  blood 
vessels  is  an  exact  picture  of  the  nervous  system,  is, 


in  fact,  only  its  shadow.  Like  the  heart  the  brain  has 
its  upper  and  lower  divisions — the  cerebrum  and  the 
cerebellum — and,  as  well,  its  right  and  left  divisions. 
The  nerves  going  to  both  sides  of  the  body  and  coming 
back  from  thence,  together  with  those  going  to  the 
upper  and  lower  portions,  correspond  to  the  four  petals 
of  the  heart.  This  system  too,  then,  has  as  many  cen 
tres  of  energy  as  the  former.  Both  these  centres  coin 
cide  in  position.  They  are,  in  fact,  the  same — the  ner 
vous  plexuses  and  ganglia  of  modern  anatomy.  Thus, 
in  my  opinion,  the  tantrik  Padmas  are  not  only  the 
centres  of  nervous  power  of  the  positive  northern  Prana, 
but  as  well  and  necessarily  of  the  negative  Prana. 

The  translation  of  the  Science  of  Breath  which  is 
now  presented  to  the  reader  has  two  sections  enume 
rating  the  various  actions  which  are  to  be  done  during 
the  flow  of  the  positive  or  the  negative  breath.  They 
show  nothing  more  than  what  can  in  some  cases  be 
very  easily  verified,  that  certain  actions  are  better  done 
by  positive  energy,  and  others  by  negative  energy. 
The  taking  in  of  chemicals  and  their  changes  are 
actions,  as  well  as  any  others.  Some  of  the  chemicals 
are  better  assimilated  by  the  negative,*  others  by  the 
positive!  Prana.  Some  of  our  sensations  produce 
more  lasting  effects  upon  the  negative,  others  upon  the 
positive  Prana. 

Prana  has  now  arranged  the  gross  matter  in  the 
womb  into  the  nervous  and  blood-vessel  systems.  The 

*  For  example,  milk  and  other  Fatty  substances, 
t  Such  food  as  is  digested  in  the  stomach. 

PRAXA.  ,~ 


Prana,  as  has  been  .seen,  is  made  of  the  five  Tattvas, 
;uid  the  Nadis  serve  only  as  lines  for  tattvic  currents 
to  run  on.  The  centres  of  power  noticed  above  are 
centres  of  tattvic  power.  The  tattvic  centres  in  the 
right  part  of  the  body  are  solar,  those  in  the  left, 
lunar.  Both  these  solar  and  lunar  centres  are  of  five 
descriptions.  Their  kind  is  determined  by  what  are 
railed  the  nervous  ganglia.  The  semi-lunar  ganglia 
are  the  reservoirs  of  the  Apas  Tattva.  Similarly  we 
have  the  reservoirs  of  the  other  forces.  J'Vom  these 
central  reservoirs  the  tattvic  currents  run  over  the  same 
Hues,  and  do  the  various  actions  allotted  to  them  in 
physiological  economy. 

Everything  in  the  human  body  which  has  more  or 
less  of  cohesive  resistance  is  made  up  of  the  Prithivi 
Tattva.  But  in  this  the  various  Tattvas  work  im 
printing  differing  qualities  upon  the  various  parts  of 
the  body. 

The  Vayu  Tattva,  among  others,  performs  the  func 
tions  of  giving  birth  to,  and  nourishing  the  skin;  the 
positive  gives  us  the  positive,  and  the  negative  the 
negative  skin.  Each  of  these  has  five  layers: 

i,  Pure  Vayu;   2,  Vayu-Agni;  3,  Vayu-Prithivi;  4, 
Vayu-Apas;  5,  Yayu-Akasha.     These  five 
classes  of  cells  have  the  following  figures:     0°oo>00 

1.  Pure    Vavu.      This   is   the   complete 
sphere  of  the  Vayu. 

2.  Vayu-Agni.      The  triangle  is  super 
posed  over  the  sphere,  and  the  cells  have  something 
like  the  following  shape. 


3.  Vayu-Prithivi.     This  is  the  result  of  the  super 
position  of  the  quadrangular  Prit-  ^^^     ^^^     ^^^ 
hivi  over  the  spherical  Vayu.  Qj     (jj     (jj 

4.  Vayu-Apas.     Something  like 

an  ellipse,  the  semi-moon  placed  above  the  sphere. 

O  O  O  O  O  O 

5.  Vayu-Akasha.    The  sphere  flattened  by  the  super 

position  of  the  circle  and  dotted. 

^l^}  (vfy  (£$  (£y  A  microscopic  examination  of 
/7T\  £r\  ^r\  s^\  the  skin  will  show  that  its  cells 
^"  ^^  ^^  ^^  have  this  appearance. 

Similarly  are  bone,  muscle  and  fat  given  birth  to  by 
the  Prithivi,  the  Agni  and  the  Apas.  Akasha  appears 
in  various  positions.  Wherever  there  is  any  room  for 
anv  substance  there  is  Akasha.  The  blood  is  a  mix 
ture  of  nutritive  substances  kept  in  the  fluidic  state  by 
the  Apas  Tattva  of  Prana. 

It  is  thus  seen  that  while  terrestrial  Prana  is  an 
exact  manifestation  of  the  solar  Prana,  the  human 
manifestation  is  an  exact  expression  of  cither.  The 
microcosm  is  an  exact  picture  of  the  macrocosm.  The 
four  petals  of  the  lotus  of  the  heart  branch  really  into 
twelve  Nadis  (k,  kh,  g,  gh,  n-,  cli,  chh,  j,  jh,  ri,  t,  th). 
Similarly  the  brain  has  twelve  pairs  of  nerves.  These 


are    the   twelve   signs    of    the    Zodiac,   both    in    their 
positive  and  negative  phases.     In  every  sign  the  sun 
rises  thirty-one  times.     We  have,  therefore,  thirty-one 
pairs  of  nerves.     Instead   of  pairs   we  speak    in   the 
language  of  the  Tantras  of  Chakras  (discs  or  circles) 
Wherever   the   thirty-one    spinal    Chakras   connected 
with   the  twelve  pairs  of   nerves  in   the  brain,   pass 
throughout  the  body,  we  have  running  side  by  side 
the  blood-vessels  proceeding  from  the  twelve  Nadis  of 
the  heart.     The  only    difference  between    the  spinal 
and  cardiac  Chakras  is  that  the  former  lie  crosswise, 
while   the    latter  lie  lengthwise  in    the    body.      Thr 
sympathetic  chords  consist  of  lines  of  tattvic  centres 
-the  Padmas  or  Kamalas.     These  centres  lie  in  all 
the  thirty-one  Chakras  noticed  above.     Thus  from  the 
two  centres  of  action— the  brain  and  the  heart— the 
signs  of  the  Zodiac    in  their   positive    and   negative 
aspects— a  system  of  Nadis  branches  off.     The  Nadis 
from  either  centre  run  into  one  another  so  much  that 
one  set  is  found  always  side  by  side  with  the  other. 
The  thirty-one  Chakras  of  the  spine  are  brought  into 
existence,  and  correspond  with  the  thirty-one  sunrises, 
and  those  of  the  heart  with  the  thirty-one  sunsets  of 
the  zodiacal  signs.     In  these  Chakras  are  various  tattvic 
centres;  one  set  is  positive,  the  other  is  negative.    The 
former  owe  allegiance  to  the  brain,  with  which  they  are 
connected  by  the  sympathetic  chords;  the  latter 'owe 
allegiance  to  the  heart,  with  which  they  have  a  various 
connection.     This  double  system  is  on  the  right  side 
called  Pingala,  on  the  left  Ida.    The  ganglia  of  the  Apas 


centres  are  semi-lunar,  those  of  the  Tejas,  the  Vayu, 
the  Prithivi,  and  the  Akasha  respectively  triangular, 
spherical,  quadrangular,  and  circular.  Those  of  the 
composite  Tattvas  have  composite  figures.  Each  tattvic 
centre  has  ganglia  of  all  the  Tattvas  surrounding  it. 

In  this  system  of  Nadis  moves  the  Prana.     As  the 

sun  passes  into  the  sign  of  Aries  in  the  macrocosm, 

the  Prana  passes  into  the  corresponding  Nadis  (nerves) 

of  the  brain.     Thence  it  descends  every  day  towards 

the  spine.     With  the  rise  of  the  sun  it  descends  into 

the  first  spinal    Chakra   towards  the  right.     It  thus 

passes   into   the    Piiigala.     Along   the  nerves  of  the 

right  side  it  moves,  passing  at  the  same  time  little  by 

little  into  the  blood-vessels.     Up  to  the  noon  of  every 

day  the  strength  of  this  Prana  is  greater  in  the  nervous 

than  in  the  venous  Chakras.     At  noon  they  become  of 

equal    strength.     In   the   evening   (with    sunset),  the 

Prana  with   its  entire   strength    has   passed  into  the 

blood-vessels.     Thence   it  gathers  up  into  the  heart, 

the  negative  southern  centre.     It  then  spreads  into 

the  left  side  blood-vessels,  passing  gradually  into  the 

nerves.     At  midnight  the  strength   is  equalixed;    in 

the  morning  (Pratahsandhya)  the  Prana  is  just  in  the 

spine ;  from  thence  it  begins  to  travel  along  the  second 

Chakra  (disc,  circle).     This  is  the  course  of  the  solar 

current  of  Prana>  The  moon  gives  birth  to  other  and 

minor  currents.     The  moon  moves  some  twelve  times 

more  than  the  sun.     Therefore  while  the  sun  passes 

over  one  Chakra  (/>.,  during  sixty  Gharis — day  and 

night),   the  moon   passes  over   twelve   odd    Chakras. 

PR  AX  A. 

Therefore  we  have  twelve  odd  changes  of  Prana  during 
twenty-four  hours.     Suppose  the  moon  too  begins  in 
Aries,  she  begins  like  the  sun  in  the  first  Chakra,  and 
takes  58111.  43.  in  reaching  from  the  spine  to  the  heart, 
and  as  many  minutes  from  the  heart  back  to  the  spine! 
Both  these  Pranas  move  in  their  respective  courses 
along  ^  the  tattvic  centres  above  spoken  of.     Hither  of 
them  is  present  at  any  one  time  all  over  the  same  class 
of  tattvic  centres,   in  any  one  part  of  the  body.      It 
manifests  itself  first  in  the  Vayu  centres,  then  in  the 
Tejas,  thirdly  in  the  Prithivi,  and  fourthly  in  the  Apas 
centres.     Akasha  comes  after  each,  and  immediately 
precedes  the  Sushumna.     As  the  lunar  current  passes 
from  the  spine  towards  the  right,  the  breath  comes  out 
of  the  right   nostril,   and   as  long  as  the  current  of 
Prana   remains   in    the    back    part    of  the    body,    the 
Tattvas  change  from  the  Yayu  to  the  Apas.     As  the 
current  passes  into  the  front  part  of  the  right  half,  the 
Tattvas  change  back  from  the  Apas  to  the  Yayu.     As 
the  Prana  passes  into  the  heart,  the  breath  is  not  felt 
at  all  passing  out  at  the  nose.     As  it  proceeds  from  the 
heart  to  the  left,  the  breath  begins  to  flow  out  at  the 
left  nostril,  and  as  long  as  it  is  in  the  front  part  of  the 
body,  the  Tattvas  change  from  the  Vayu  to  the  Apas. 
They  change  back  again  as  before,  until  the  Prana 
reaches    the    spine,    when    we    have    the    Akasha    of 
Sushumna.     Such  is  the  even  change  of  Prana  which 
we  have  in  the  state  of  perfect  health.     The  impulse 
that    has  been   given  to  the   localized    Prana   by  the 
sun   and    moon    forces  which    give  active   power  and 


existence  to   Prana  its  prototype,   makes  it  work   in 
the  same  way  for  ever  and  ever.     The  working  of  the 
human  free  will  and  certain  other  forces  change  the 
nature  of  the  local  Prana,  and  individualize  it  in  such 
a  way  as  to  render  it  distinguishable  from  the  universal 
terrestrial   or   ecliptical    Pranas.      With   the   varying 
nature   of    Prana,  the  order  of   the   tattvic   and   the 
positive  and  negative  currents  may  in  various  degrees 
be  affected.      Disease  is  the  result  of  this  variation. 
In  fact,  the  flow  of  breath  is  the  truest  indication  of 
the  tattvic  changes  of  the  body.     The  balance  of  the 
positive  and  negative  tattvic  currents  results  in  health, 
while   the    disturbance   of    their    harmony   produces 
disease.     The  science  of  the  flow  of  breath  is  there 
fore  of  the   highest  importance   to   every  man    who 
values  his  own  health,  and  that  of  his  fellow  creatures. 
It  is  at  the  same  time  the  most  important,  the  most 
useful  and  comprehensive,  the  easiest,  and  the  most 
interesting  branch  of   Yoga.      It  teaches  us  how  to 
guide  our  will  so  as  to  effect  desired  changes  in  the 
order  and  nature  of  our  positive  and  negative  tattvic 
currents.     This  it  does   in   the   following   way.     All 
physical  action  is  Prana  in  a  certain  state.     Without 
Prana  there  is  no  action,  and  every  action  is  the  result 
of  the  differing  harmonies  of  tattvic  currents.     Thus, 
motion  in  any  one  part  of  the  body  is  the  result  of  the 
activity  of  the  Vayu  centres  in  that  part  of  the  body. 
In  the  same  way,  whenever  there  is  activity  in   the 
>     Prithivi  centres,  we  have  a  feeling  of  enjoyment  and 
satisfaction.    Similar  are  the  causes  of  other  sensations. 


We  find  that  while  lying  down  we  change  sides 
when  the  breath  passes  out  at  that  nostril.  We  there-  ; 
!ore  conclude  that  if  we  lie  on  either  side  the  breath 
will  flow  out  at  the  opposite  nostril.  Whenever  there- 
lore,  we  see  that  it  is  desirable  to  change  the  negative 
conditions  of  our  body  to  the  positive,  we  resort  to  this 
expedient.  An  investigation  into  the  physiological 
effects  of  Prana  on  the  gross  coil,  and  the  counter  effects 
of  gross  action  upon  Prana,  will  next  be  dealt  with. 

The   Pranamaya  Kosha  (coil  of  life)  changes  into 
three  general  states  during  day  and  night— the  wakino- 
the    dreaming,    the    sleeping    (Jagrat,    Svapna,    Stt- 
shupti).     These   three   changes  produce   correspond 
ing   changes  in    the    Manomaya   Kosha    (the  mental 
coil),  and  thence  arises  the  consciousness  of  the  changes 
'  life.     The  mind,   in  fact,   lies  behind  the   Prana. 
The  strings  (tattvic  lines)  of  the  former  instrument 
are  finer  than  those  of  the  latter;  that  is,  in  the  former 
we  have  a  greater  number  of  vibrations  than  in  the 
latter  during  the  same  space  of  time.     Their  tensions 
stand  to  each  other,  however,  in  such  a  relation  that 
vvith    the  vibrations  of  the  one,   the    other  of  itself 
begins  to  vibrate.     The   changes   give  to  the   mind, 
therefore,  a  similar  appearance,  and  consciousness  of 
the  phenomenon  is  caused.    Of  this,  however,  I  will  not 
treat  at  present.     My  present  object  is  to  describe  all 
Those  changes  of  Prana— natural  or  induced— which 
make  up  the  sum-total  of  our  worldly  expcru-mv,  ;iml 
which,  during  ages  of  evolution,  have  called  UK-  mind 
itself  out  of  the  slate  of  latency.     These  changes,  as 


I   have   said,   divide    themselves    into   three   general 
states— the  waking,  the  dreaming,  and  the  sleeping. 
Waking  is  the  positive,  sleeping  the  negative  state^of 
Prana;  dreaming  is  the  conjunction  of  the  two  (Su- 
shumna  Sandhi).    As  has  been  stated,  the  solar  current 
travels  in  a  positive  direction  during  the  day,  while 
we   are   awake.      As   night   approaches   the   positive 
current  has  made  itself  lord  of  the  body.     It  gains  so 
much  strength  that  the  sensuous  and  active  organs 
lose  sympathy  with  the  external  world.     Perception 
and  action  cease,  and  the  waking  state  passes  off.    The 
excess  of  the  positive  current  slackens,  as  it  were,  the 
tattvic  chords  of  the  different  centres  of  work,  and 
they  accordingly  cease  to  answer  to  the  ordinary  ethe 
real  changes  of  external  nature.     If  at  this  point  the 
strength  of  the  positive  current  passed  beyond  ordi 
nary  limits,  death  would  ensue,  and  Prana  would  cease 
to  have  any  connection  with  the  gross  body,  the  ordi 
nary  vehicle  of  the  external  tattvic  changes.    But  just 
at  the  moment  the  Prana  passes  out  of  the  heart,  the 
negative  current  sets  in,  and  it  begins  to  counteract 
the  effects  of  the  former.     As  the  Prana  reaches  the 
spine,  the  effects  of  the  positive  current  have  entirely 
passed  off,  and  we   awake.     If  at  this  moment  the 
strength  of  the  negative  current  passes  the  ordinary 
limit  by  some  cause  or  other,  death  would  ensue,  but 
just  at  this  moment  the  positive  current  sets  in  with 
midnight,  and  begins  to  counteract  the  effect  of  the 
former.     A  balance  of  the  positive  and  negative  cur 
rents  thus  keeps  body  and  soul  together.    With  excess 

PRANA.  55 

in  the  strength  of  either  current,  death  makes  its 
appearance.  We  thus  see  that  there  are  two  kinds  of 
death — the  positive  or  spinal,  the  negative  or  cardiac. 
In  the  former  the  four  higher  prmciples~pass"  out  of 
the  body  through  the  head,  the  Braliinarandhra,  along 
the  spine;  in  the  latter  they  pass  out  of  the  mouth 
through  the  lungs  and  the  trachea.  Besides  these 
there  are  generally  speaking  about  six  tattvic  deaths. 
All  these  deaths  mark  out  different  paths  for  the 
higher  principles.  Of  these,  however,  more  hereafter. 
Let  us  at  this  stage  investigate  more  thoroughly  the 
changes  of  Prana. 

There  are  certain  manifestations  of  Prana  which  we 
find  equally  at  work  in  all  the  three  states.  These 
manifestations  have  been,  as  I  said  before,  classified 
by  some  writers  under  five  heads.  They  have  different 
centres  of  work  in  different  parts  of  the  body,  from 
whence  they  assert  their  dominion  over  every  part  of 
the  physical  coil.  Thus: 


1.  Prana,  right  lung.  i.  Prana,  left  lung. 

2.  Apana,  the  apparatus  which  2.  Apana,  the  urinary  apparatus. 
passes  off  fieces — long  intes 
tine,  etc. 

3.  Samana,  stomach.  3.  Samana,  duodenum. 

4.  Vyana,  all  over  the  body,  ap-  4.  Vyana,  all  over  the  body  (on 
pearing  in  varying  states  with         the  left  side) 

different  organs  (on  the  right 

5.  TMaua,  at  the  spinal  and  car-    5.   TMana,  the  spinal  and  cardiac 
diac  centres  (ii;;ht   side),  and          centres  (left  side),  etc. 
about  the  resnuii  of  the  throat. 


1.  Prana  is  that  manifestation  of  the  life-coil  which 
draws  atmospheric  air  from  without  into  the  system. 

2.  Apana  is  that  manifestation  which  throws,  from 
inside,  out  of  the  system,  things  which  are  not  wanted 

3.  Samana  is  that  manifestation  which  draws  in  and 
carries  the  juice  of  food  to  every  part  of  the  body. 

4.  Vyana  is  that  manifestation  which  causes  every 
part  of  the  body  to  keep  its  shape,  and  to  consequently 
resist  those  putrefying  forces  which  assert  themselves 
in  a  dead  body. 

5.  Udana  is  that  manifestation  which  inclines  the 
^  ,  currents  of  life  back  to  the  centres— the  heart  and  the 

brain.    It  is,  therefore,  this  manifestation  which  causes 
death — local  or  general. 

If  Prana  recedes  from  any  part  of  the  body  (for 
some  reason  or  other)  that  part  loses  its  powers  of 
action.  This  is  local  death.  It  is  in  this  way  that  we 
become  deaf,  dumb,  blind,  etc.  It  is  in  this  way  that 
our  digestive  powers  suffer,  and  so  on.  General  death 
is  similar  in  its  operations.  With  the  excess  of  the 
strength  of  either  of  the  two  currents,  the  Prana  re 
mains  in  the  Sushumna,  and  does  not  pass  out.  The 
acquired  power  of  work  of  the  body  then  begins  to 
pass  off.  The  farther  from  the  centres— the  heart  and 
the  brain — the  sooner  the  parts  die.  It  is  thus  that 
the  pulse  first  ceases  to  be  felt  in  the  extremities,  and 
then  nearer  and  nearer  the  heart,  until  we  find  it 

Again,   it   is   this   upward    impulse   which,    under 

PRAXA.  ^7 

favourable  conditions,  causes  growth,  lightness,  and 

Besides  the  organs  of  the  body  already  mentioned 
or  indicated,  the  manifestation  of  Vyana  serves  to 
keep  in  form  the  five  organs  of  sense,  and  the  five 
organs  of  action.  The  organs  of  the  gross  body  and 
the  powers  of  Prana  which  manifest  themselves  in 
work  have  both  the  same  names.  Thus  we  have : 



1.  Vak,  the  vocal  organs  and  the  i.  Chaksuh,    eye     and     ocular 
power  of  speech.  power. 

2.  Pani,  the  hands  and  the  man-  2.  Tvak,  skin  and  tangeriferous 
ual  power.  power. 

3.  Pada,  the  feet  and  the  walk-  3.  Shrotra,  ear  and  sonoriferous 
ing  power.  power. 

4.  Payu,  anus.  4.   Rasana,  tongue  and  gustatory 


5.  Upastha,    the    generative   or-     5.  Gandha,  nose  and  odoriferous 
gans   and   the  powers  which          power. 

draw  these  together. 

The  real  fact  is  that  the  different  powers  are  the 
corresponding  organs  of  the  principle  of  life.  It 
will  now  be  instructive  to  trace  the  tattvic  changes 
.md  influences  of  these  various  manifestations  of 

Prana  during  health  works  all  over  the  system  in 
one  class  of  tattvic  centres  at  the  same  time.  We 
thus  see  that  both  during  the  course  of  the  positive 
and  negative  current  we  have  five  tattvic  changes. 
The  colour  of  Prana  during  the  reign  of  the  negative 
current  is  pure  white;  during  that  of  the  positive, 


reddish  white.     The  former  is  calmer  and  smoother 
than  the  latter. 

The  tattvic  changes  give  to  each  of  these  five  new 
phases  of  colour.  Thus: 


1.  The  Vayu  Tattva,  green.  i.  The  Vayu  Tattva,  green. 

2.  The  Agni  Tattva,  red.  2.  The  Agni  Tattva,  red. 

3.  The  Prithivi  Tattva,  yellow.  3.  The  Prithivi  Tattva,  yellow. 

4.  The  Apas  Tattva,  white.  4.  The  Apas  Tattva,  white. 

5.  The  Akasha  Tattva,  dark.  5.  The  Akasha  Tattva,  dark. 

It  is  evident  that  there  is  a  difference  between  the 
positive  and  negative  tattvic  phases  of  colour.  There- 
are  thus  ten  general  phases  of  colour. 

The  positive  current — the  reddish  white — is  hotter 
than  the  negative — the  pure  white.  It  may,  therefore, 
be  generally  said  that  the  positive  current  is  hot,  the 
negative  cool.  Each  of  these,  then  undergoes  five 
tattvic  changes  of  temperature.  The  Agni  is  the 
hottest,  the  yellow  next  to  it;  the  Vayu  becomes  cool, 
and  the  Apas  is  the  coolest.  The  Akasha  has  a  state 
which  neither  cools  nor  heats.  This  state  is,  therefore, 
the  most  dangerous  of  all,  and,  if  prolonged,  causes 
death,  disease,  and  debility.  It  is  evident  that  if  the 
cooling  Tattvas  do  not  in  due  time  set  in  after  the 
heating  Tattvas,  to  counteract  the  accumulated  effect 
of  the  latter,  the  functions  of  life  will  be  impaired. 
The  just  colour  and  the  just  temperature  at  which 
these  functions  work  in  their  vigour  will  be  disturbed, 
and  disease,  death,  and  debility  are  nothing  more  than 
this  disturbance  in  various  degrees.  Similar  is  the 

PRANA.  1^9 

case  if  the  heating  Tattvas  do  not  set  in  in  due  time 
after  the  cooling  ones. 

It  will  be  easy  to  understand  that  these  changes  of 
tattvic  colours  and  temperatures  are  not  abrupt.  The 
one  passes  off  easily  and  smoothly  into  the  other, 
and  the  tattvic  mixtures  produce  innumerable  colours 
—as  many,  in  fact,  as  the  solar  Prana  has  been  shown 
to  possess.  Each  of  these  colours  tends  to  keep  the 
body  healthy  if  it  remains  in  action  just  as  long  as  it 
ought,  but  no  sooner  does  the  duration  change  than 
disease  results.  There  is  a  possibility,  therefore,  of 
as  many  diseases  as  there  are  colours  in  the  sun. 

If  any  one  colour  is  prolonged,  there  must  be  some 
one  or  more  which  has  given  the  period  of  its  dura 
tion  to  it;  similarly  if  one  colour  takes  less  time  than 
it  ought,  there  must  be  some  one  or  more  which  takes 
its  place.  This  suggests  two  methods  of  the  treat 
ment  of  diseases.  But  before  speaking  of  these,  it  will 
be  necessary  to  investigate  as  fully  as  possible  the 
causes  which  lengthen  and  shorten  the  ideal  periods 
of  the  Tattvas. 

To  return  for  the  present  to  Prana.  This  pul 
monary  manifestation  of  the  principle  of  life  is  the 
most  important  of  all,  because  its  working  furnishes 
us  with  a  most  faithful  measure  of  the  tattvic  state  of 
the  body.  It  is  on  this  account  that  the  name  Prana 
has  been  given  by  preeminence  to  this  manifesta 

Now,  as  the  Prana  works  in  the  pulmonary  Tcjas 
centres  (/.6'.,  the  centres  of  the  luminiferous  ether), 


tlie  lungs  are  thrown  into  a  triangular  form  of  expan 
sion,  atmospheric  air  runs  in,  and  the  process  of  inspi 
ration  is  complete.  With  every  Truti,  a  backward 
impulse  is  given  to  the  currents  of  Prana.  The  lungs 
are  thrown  with  this  returning  current  into  their  sta 
tionary  state,  and  the  excess  of  air  is  expelled.  This 
is  the  process  of  expiration.  The  air  that  is  thus 
thrown  out  of  the  lungs  bears  a  triangular  form.  The 
water-vapour  which  this  air  contains,  to  some  extent 
furnishes  us  with  a  method  of  testing  this  truth  by 
experiment.  If  we  take  a  smooth,  shining  looking- 
glass,  and,  placing  it  under  the  nose,  steadily  breathe 
upon  its  cool  surface,  the  water-vapour  of  the  air  will 
be  condensed,  and  it  will  be  seen  that  this  bears  a 
particular  figure.  In  the  case  of  the  pure  Agni,  the 
figure  on  the  looking-glass  will  be  a  triangle.  Let 
another  person  look  steadily  upon  the  mirror,  because 
the  impression  passes  off  rapidly,  and  may  escape  the 
person  who  is  breathing  upon  it. 

With  the  course  of  the  other  Tattvas  the  lungs  are 
thrown  into  their  respective  shapes,  and  the  looking- 
glass  gives  us  the  same  figures.  Thus  in  Apas  we 
have  the  semi-moon,  in  Vayu  the  sphere,  in  Prithivi 
the  quadrangle.  With  the  composition  of  these 
Tattvas  we  may  have  other  figures — oblongs,  squares, 
spheroids,  and  so  on. 

It  may  also  be  mentioned  that  the  luminiferous 
ether  carries  the  materials  drawn  from  the  atmospheric 
air  to  the  centres  of  the  luminiferous  ether,  and  thence 
to  every  part  of  the  body.  So  also  do  the  other  ethers 

PRANA.  6l 

carry  these  materials  to  their  respective  centres.  It  ^ 
not  necessary  to  trace  the  workings  of  the  other  mani 
festations  one  by  one.  It  may,  however,  be  said  that 
although  all  the  five  Tattvas  work  in  all  the  five 
manifestations,  each  of  these  manifestations  is  sacred 
to  one  of  these  Tattvas.  Thus  in  Prana  the  Vayu 
Tattva  prevails,  in  Samana  the  Agni,  in  Apana  the 
Prithivi,  in  Yyuna  the  Apas,  in  Udfma  the  Akasha. 
I  may  remind  the  reader  that  the  general  colour  of 
Prana  is  white,  and  this  will  show  how  the  Apas 
Tattva  prevails  in  Yyana.  The  darkness  of  Akasha 
is  the  darkness  of  death,  etc.,  caused  by  the  manifesta 
tion  of  Udana. 

During  life  these  ten  changes  are  always  taking 
place  in  Prana  at  the  intervals  of  about  twenty-six 
minutes  each.  In  waking,  in  sleep,  or  in  dream,  these 
changes  never  cease.  It  is  only  in  the  two  Sushumnas 
or  the  Akasha  that  these  changes  become  for  a  moment 
potential,  because  it  is  from  these  that  these  tattvic 
manifestations  show  themselves  on  the  plane  of  the 
body.  If  this  moment  is  prolonged,  the  forces  of 
Prana  remain  potential,  and  in  death  the  Prana  is 
thus  in  the  potential  state.  When  those  causes  which 
tended  to  lengthen  the  period  of  Sushumna,  and  thus 
cause  death,  are  removed,  this  individual  Prana  passes 
out  of  the  potential  into  the  actual,  positive,  or  nega 
tive  state  as  the  case  may  be.  It  will  energize  matter, 
and  will  develop  it  into  the  shape  towards  which  its 
accumulated  potentialities  tend. 

hino-  mav  now  be  said  about  the  work  of 



r     All  work,  it  may  generally  be  said,  is  tattvic  motion. 

This  work  is  capable  of  being  carried  on  during  the 

waking  state,  and  not  in  sleep  or  dream.     These  ten 

organs  have  ten  general  colours,  thus: 


1.  Eye,  Agni,  red.  i.  Hand,  Vayu,  blue. 

2.  Ear,  Akasha,  dark.  2.   Foot,  Prithivi,  yellow. 

3.  Nose,  Prithivi,  yellow.  3.  Tongue  (speech),  Apas,  white. 

4.  Tongue  (taste),  Apas,  white.  4.  Anus,  Akasha,  dark. 

5.  Skin,  Vayu,  blue.  5.  Pudendum,  Agni,  red. 

Although  these  are  the  generally  prevalent  Tattvas 
in  these  various  centres,  all  the  other  Tattvas  exist  in 
a  subordinate  position.  Thus  in  the  eye  we  have  a 
reddish  yellow,  reddish  white,  reddish  dark,  reddish 
blue,  and  similarly  in  the  other  organs.  This  division 
into  five  of  each  of  these  colours  is  only  general;  in 
reality  there  is  an  almost  innumerable  variation  of 
colours  in  each  of  these. 

With  every  act  of  every  one  of  these  ten  organs,  the 
organ  specially,  and  the  whole  body  generally,  assumes 
a  different  colour,  the  colour  of  that  particular  tattvic 
motion  which  constitutes  that  act. 

All  these  changes  of  Prana  constitute  the  sum  total 
of  our  worldly  experience.  Furnished  with  this  appa 
ratus,  Prana  begins  its  human  pilgrimage,  in  company 
with  a  mind,  which  is  evolved  only  to  the  extent  of 
connecting  the  "I  am"  of  the  Ahankara  or  Vijnana, 
the  fourth  principle  from  below,  with  these  manifesta 
tions  of  Prana.  Time  imprints  upon  it  all  the  in- 

PRAXA.  63 

numerable  colours  of  the  universe.  The  visual,  the 
tangible,  the  gustatory,  the  auditory,  and  the  olfactory 
appearances  in  all  their  variety  gather  into  Prana  just 
as  our  daily  experience  teaches  us  that  one  current  of 
electricity  carries  many  messages  at  one  and  the  same 
time.  In  the  same  way  do  the  appearances  of  the 
active  organs,  and  the  five  remaining  general  func 
tions  of  the  body,  gather  up  in  this  Prana  to  manifest 
themselves  in  due  time. 

A  few  illustrations  will  render  all  this  clear.  First 
to  speak  of  our 


The  generative  Agni  Tattva  of  the  male  is  positive, 
that  of  the  female  negative.  The  former  is  hotter, 
harsher,  and  more  restless  than  the  latter;  the  latter 
is  cooler,  smoother,  and  calmer  than  the  former. 
Here  I  shall  only  speak  of  the  colouration  of  Prana 
by  the  action  or  non-action  of  this  power.  The  posi 
tive  Agni  tends  to  run  into  the  negative,  and  vice,  versa. 
If  it  is  not  allowed  to  do  so,  the  repeated  impulses  of 
this  Tattva  turn  upon  themselves,  the  centre  gains 
greater  strength,  and  the  whole  Prana  is  every  day 
coloured  deeper  and  deeper  red.  The  centres  of  the 
Agni  Tattva  all  over  the  body  become  stronger  in 
their  action,  while  all  the  others  contract  a  general 
tinge  of  the  red.  The  eyes  and  the  stomach  become 
stronger.  If,  however,  man  indulges  his  sexual  in 
stincts,  the  male  Prana  gets  coloured  by  the  female 
Agni,  and  vice,  versa.  This  tends  to  weaken  all  the 
centres  of  this  Tattva,  and  gives  to  the  whole  Prana 


a  feminine  colour.  The  stomach  also  becomes  cool, 
the  eyes  grow  weak,  and  virile  manly  power  departs. 
If  more  than  one  individual  female  Agni  takes  posses 
sion  of  the  male  Prana,  and  vice  versa,  the  general 
antagonistic  Tattva  becomes  deeper  and  stronger.  The 
whole  Prana  is  vitiated  to  a  greater  extent,  greater 
debility  is  the  result,  spermatorrhoea,  impotence,  and 
such  other  antagonistic  colours  take  possession  of  the 
Prana.  Besides,  the  separate  individualities  of  the 
male  or  female  Agnis,  which  have  taken  possession  of 
any  one  Prana,  will  tend  to  repel  each  other. 
Suppose  now  that  a  man  is  given  to 


The  Prithivi  Tattva  of  the  feet  gains  strength,  the 
yellow  colour  pervades  the  whole  Prana.  The  centres 
of  the  Prithivi  all  over  the  body  begin  to  work  more 
briskly;  Agni  receives  a  mild  and  wholesome  addition 
to  its  power,  the  whole  system  tends  towards  healthy 
equilibrium — neither  too  hot,  nor  yet  too  cold — and 
a  general  feeling  of  satisfaction  accompanied  with 
vigour,  playfulness  and  a  relish  of  enjoyment  is  the 

Let  me  take  one  more  illustration  from  the  opera 
tions  of 


and  then  I  shall  have  done  with  the  organs  of  action. 
The  power  (Shakti)  of  speech  (Yak,  Sarasvati)  is  one 
of  the  most  important  goddesses  of  the  Hindu  pan 
theon.  The  chief  ingredient  of  Prana  which  go^- 



towards  the  formation  of  this  organ  is  the  Apas 
Tattva.  The  colour  of  the  goddess  is,  therefore,  said 
to  be  white.  The  vocal  chords  with  the  larynx  in  front 
form  the  Vina  (musical  instrument)  of  the  goddess. 

In  this  section  of  the  vocal  apparatus     A 
A  B  is  the  thyroid,  a  broad  cartilage 
forming  the  projection  of  the  throat,  and 
much  more  prominent  in  men  than  in 

women.     Below  this  is  the  annular  car-      / 


tilage,  C,  the  cricoid.  Behind  this — or 
we  may  say  on  this — are  stretched  the 
chords  a  and  b. 

Atmospheric  air  passing  over  these 
chords  in  the  act  of  breathing  sets  them 
in  vibration,  and  sound  is  the  result. 
Ordinarily  these  chords  are  too  loose  to 
give  any  sound.  The  Apas  Tattva,  the  milk-white 
goddess  of  speech,  performs  the  all-important  function 
of  making  them  tense.  As  the  semi-lunar  current 
of  the  Apas  Tattva  passes  along  the  muscles  of  these 
chords,  they  are,  as  it  were,  shrivelled  up,  and  curves 
are  formed  in  the  chords,  which  are  thus  rendered 

The  depth  of  these  curves  depends  upon  the 
strength  of  the  Apas  current.  The  deeper  these 
curves,  the  tenser  are  the  chords.  The  thyroid  serves 
to  vary  the  intensity  of  the  voice  thus  produced.  This 
will  suffice  for  the  purpose  of  showing  that  the  real 
motive  power  in  the  production  of  voice  is  the  Apas 
Tattva  or  Prana.  There  are  certain  ethereal  condi- 


tions  of  the  external  world,  as  will  be  easily  under 
stood,  which  excite  the  centres  of  the  Apas  Tattva; 
the  current  passes  along  the  vocal  chords,  they  are 
made  tense,  and  sound  is  produced.  But  the  excite 
ment  of  these  centres  comes  also  from  the  soul  through 
the  mind.  The  use  of  this  sound  in  the  course  of 
evolution  as  the  vehicle  of  thought  is  the  marriage 
of  Brahma  (the  Vijnanamaya  Kosha,  the  soul)  with 
Sarasvati,  the  power  of  speech  as  located  in  man. 

The  Apas  Tattva  of  the  vocal  apparatus,  although 
the  chief  motive  power  in  the  production  of  sound,  is 
modified  according  to  circumstances  by  the  compo 
sition  of  the  other  Tattvas  in  various  degrees.  As 
far  as  human  ken  reaches,  about  forty-nine  of  these 
variations  have  been  recorded  under  the  name  of 
Svara.  First,  there  are  seven  general  notes.  These 
may  be  positive  and  negative  (Tivra  and  Komala), 
and  then  each  of  these  may  have  three  subdivisions. 
These  notes  are  then  composed  into  eight  Ragas,  and 
each  Raga  has  several  Raginis.  The  simple  Raginis 
may  be  then  compounded  into  others,  and  each  Ragini 
may  have  a  good  many  arrangements  of  notes.  The 
variations  of  sound  thus  become  almost  innumerable. 
All  these  variations  are  caused  by  the  varying  tensions 
of  the  vocal  chords,  the  Vina  of  Sarasvati,  and  the 
tensions  vary  by  the  varying  strength  of  the  Apas 
current,  caused  by  the  superposition  of  the  other 

Each  variation  of  sound  has,  then,  a  colour  of  its 
own,  which  affects  the  whole  Prana  in  its  own  way. 


The  tattvic  effect  of  all  these  sounds  is  noted  down  in 
books  of  music;  and  various  diseases  may  be  cured, 
and  good  or  bad  tendencies  imprinted  on  the  Prana 
by  the  power  of  sound.  Sarasvati  is  an  all-powerful 
goddess,  and  controls  our  Pranas  for  good  or  evil  as 
the  case  may  be.  If  a  song  or  note  is  coloured  by  the 
Agni  Tattva,  the  sound  colours  the  Prana  red,  simi 
larly  the  Yayu,  the  Apas,  the  Akasha,  and  the  Prithivi, 
blue,  white,  dark  and  yellow.  The  red-coloured  song- 
causes  heat;  it  may  cause  anger,  sleep,  digestion,  and 
redness  of  colour.  The  Akasha-coloured  song  causes 
fear,  forgetfulness,  etc.  Songs  may  similarly  give  to 
our  Prana  the  colour  of  love,  enmity,  adoration, 
morality,  or  immorality,  as  the  case  may  be. 

L,ct  us  turn  another  key.  If  the  words  we  utter 
bear  the  colour  of  the  Agni  Tattva— anger,  love,  lust 
—our  Prana  is  coloured  red,  and  this  redness  turns 
upon  ourselves.  It  may  burn  up  our  substance,  we 
may  look  lean  and  lank,  we  may  have  ten  thousand 
other  diseases.  Terrible  retribution  of  angry  words! 
If  our  words  are  full  of  divine  love  and  adoration, 
kindness  and  morality,  words  which  give  pleasure  and 
satisfaction  to  whosoever  hears  them— the  colours  of 
the  Prithivi  and  the  Apas — we  become  loving  and 
beloved,  adoring  and  adored,  kind  and  moral,  pleasing 
and  pleased,  satisfying  and  ever  satisfied.  The  dis 
cipline  of  speech  itself— the  Satya  of  Patanjali— is 
thus  one  of  the  highest  practices  of  Yoga. 

Sensuous  impressions  colour  the  Prana  in  a  similar 
way.     If  we  be  given  to  too  much  sight-seeing,  to  the 


hearing  of  pleasant  sounds,  to  the  smelling  of  dainty 
smells,  etc.,  the  colours  of  these  Tattvas  will  be  over 
much  strengthened,  and  gain  a  mastery  over  our  Prana. 
If  we  are  fond  of  seeing  beautiful  women,  hearing  the 
music  of  their  voices,  heaven  help  us,  for  the  least  and 
the  most  general  effect  will  be  that  our  Pranas  will 
receive  the  feminine  colouration. 

These  illustrations  are  sufficient  to  explain  how 
the  tattvic  colours  of  external  nature  gather  up 
in  Prana.  It  may  be  necessary  to  say  that  no  new 
colours  enter  into  the  formation  of  Prana.  All  the 
colours  of  the  universe  are  already  present  there,  just 
as  they  are  in  the  sun,  the  prototype  of  Prana.  The 
colouration  which  I  have  spoken  of  is  only  the 
strengthening  of  the  particular  colour  to  an  extent 
which  throws  the  others  in  shade.  It  is  this  disturb 
ance  of  balance  which  in  the  first  place  causes  the 
variety  of  human  Prana,  and  in  the  second  those 
innumerable  diseases  which  flesh  is  heir  to. 

From  this  it  is  evident  that  every-  action  of  man 
gives  his  Prana  a  separate  colour,  and  the  colour 
affects  the  gross  body  in  its  turn.  But  when,  at  what 
time,  does  the  particular  tattvic  colour  affect  the 
body?  Ordinarily  under  similar  tattvic  conditions  of 
the  external  universe.  This  means  that  if  the  Agni 
Tattva  has  gained  strength  in  any  Prana  at  any  one 
particular  division  of  time,  the  strength  will  show 
itself  when  that  particular  division  of  time  recurs 
again.  Before  attempting  a  solution  of  this  problem, 
it  is  necessary  to  understand  the  following  truths: 


The  sun  is  the  chief  life-giver  of  every  organism  in 
the  system.     The  moment  that  a  new  organism  has 
come   into  existence,   the  sun   changes   his   capacity 
in  relation  to  that  organism.     He  now  becomes  the 
sustainer  in  that  organism  of  positive  life.      Along 
with  this  the  moon  begins  to  influence  the  organism  in 
her  own  way.     She  becomes  the  sustainer  of  negative 
life.     The  planets  each  of  them  establish  their  own 
currents  in  the  organism.     For  the  sake  of  simplicity 
I  have  as  yet  only  spoken  of  the  sun  and  the  moon, 
the  lords   respectively  of  the  positive   and   negative 
currents  of  the  right  and  left  halves  of  the  body,  of 
the  brain  and  the  heart,  of  the  nerves  and  the  blood 
vessels.     These  are  the  two  chief  sources  of  life,  but 
the  planets,  it  must  be  remembered,  exercise  a  modify 
ing  influence  over  these  currents.     So  the  real  tattvic 
condition  of  any  moment  is  determined   by  all  the 
seven  planets,  as  also  by  the  sun  and  the  moon.    Each 
planet,  after  determining  the  general  tattvic  condition 
of  the  moment,  proceeds  to  introduce  changes  in  the 
organism  which  is  the  birth  of  the  moment.     These 
changes  correspond    with    the   manifestation  of  that 
colour  of  Prana  which  took  its  rise  at  that  time.    Thus, 
suppose  the  red  colour  has  entered   Prana  when  the 
moon  is  in  the  second  degree  of  the  sign  of  Libra.     If 
there  is  no  disturbing  influence  of  any  other  luminary, 
the  red  colour  will  manifest  itself  whenever  the  moon 
is  in  the  same  position;  if  there  be  a  disturbing  influ 
ence    the  red    colour  will   manifest  itself  when   that 
influence  is  removed.    It  may  show  itself  in  a  month, 


or  it  may  be  postponed  for  ages.  It  is  very  difficult  to 
determine  the  time  when  an  act  will  have  its  effect. 
It  depends  a  good  deal  upon  the  strength  of  the  im 
pression.  The  strength  of  the  impression  may  be 
divided  into  ten  degrees,  although  some  writers  have 
gone  further. 

1.  Momentary.      This   degree  of  strength   has  its 
effect  there  and  then. 

2.  30°  strength.      In  this  case  the  effect  will  show 
itself  when  each  planet  is  in  the  same  sign  as  at  the 
time  of  the  impression. 

3.  15°  strength.     (Mora.) 

4.  10°  strength.     (Dreshkana.) 

5.  200'  strength.     (Navansha.) 

6.  150'  strength.     (Dvadashansha.) 

7.  60'  or  i°  strength.     (Trinshansha.) 

8.  i"  strength.     (Kala.) 

9.  i"  strength.     (Vipaln.) 

10.  i""  strength.     (Truti.) 

Suppose  in  any  Prana,  on  account  of  any  action,  the 
Agni  Tattva  obtains  the  strongest  possible  prevalence 
consistent  with  the  preservation  of  the  body,  the 
Tattva  will  begin  to  have  its  effect  then  and  there, 
until  it  has  exhausted  itself  to  a  certain  extent.  It 
will  then  become  latent  and  show  itself  when  at  any 
time  the  same  planets  sit  in  the  same  mansions. 
Examples  will  illustrate  better.  Suppose  the  follow 
ing  position  of  the  planets  at  any  moment  denotes 
the  tattvic  condition  when  any  given  colour  has 
entered  the  Prana,  say  Tuesday,  the  3rd  of  April, 

PR  AN  A. 

at   a   time  when    the   positions   of    the   stars   are   as 
follows : 


1  1 









.  .  .  .           If) 








l  7 




Jupiter  .  . 

.    7 

I  ^ 



It  is  at  this  time,  we  suppose,  that  the  act  above 
referred  to  is  committed.  The  present  effect  will  pass 
off  with  the  two  hours'  lunar  current  which  may  be 
passing  at  that  time.  It  will  then  become  latent,  and 
remain  so  till  the  time  when  these  planets  are  in  the 
same  position  again.  These  positions  might,  as  has 
been  seen,  be  nine  and  more  in  number. 

As  soon  as  the  exact  time  passes  off  when  a  colour 
has  obtained  predominance  in  Prana,  the  effect  thereof 
on  the  gross  body  becomes  latent.  It  shows  itself 
again  in  a  general  way  when  the  stars  sit  in  the  same 
mansions.  Some  of  the  strength  is  worn  off  at  this 
time,  and  the  force  again  becomes  latent  to  show  itself 
in  greater  minuteness  when  at  any  time  the  half- 
mansions  coincide,  and  so  on  with  the  remaining 
parts  noticed  above.  There  may  be  any  number  of 
times  when  there  is  only  an  approach  to  coincidence, 
and  then  the  effect  will  tend  to  show  itself  though  it 
will  at  that  time  only  remain  a  tendency 

These     observations,     although     necessarily     very 
meagre,  tend  to  show  that  the   impression   produced 


upon  Prana  by  any  act,  however  insignificant,  really 
takes  ages  to  pass  off,  when  the  stars  coincide  in  posi 
tion  to  a  degree  with  that  when  the  act  was  com 
mitted.  A  knowledge  of  astronomy  is  thus  highly 
essential  in  occult  Vedic  religion.  The  following 
observations  may,  however,  render  the  above  a  little 
more  intelligible. 

The  Pranamaya  Kosha,  as  often  remarked,  is  an 
exact  picture  of  the  terrestrial  Prana.  The  periodical 
currents  of  the  finer  forces  of  nature  which  are  in  the 
earth  operate  according  to  the  same  laws  in  the  prin 
ciple  of  life;  just  as  is  the  Zodiac,  so  is  the  Pranamaya 
Kosha  divided  into  mansions,  etc.  The  northern  and 
southern  inclinations  of  the  axis  give  us  a  heart  and 
a  brain.  Each  of  these  has  branching  off  from  it 
twelve  ramifications,  which  are  the  twelve  signs  of 
the  Zodiac.  The  daily  rotation  then  gives  us  the 
thirty-one  Chakras  spoken  of  previously.  These 
Chakras  have  all  the  divisions  of  the  signs  of  the 
Zodiac.  The  division  into  semi-mansions  has  already 
been  spoken  of.  There  is  the  positive  semi-mansion, 
and  the  negative  semi-mansion.  Then  we  have  the 
one-third,  the  one-ninth,  the  one-twelfth,  and  so  on 
to  a  degree,  or  the  divisions  or  subdivisions  thereof. 
Each  of  these  Chakras,  both  diurnal  and  annual, 
is  in  fact  a  circle  of  360°  like  the  great  circles  of 
the  heavenly  spheres.  Through  these  Chakras  is 
established  a  course  of  seven  descriptions  of  life- 

(i)  Solar;  (2)  Lunar;  (3)  Mars,  Agni;  (4)  Mercury, 

PRANA.  73 

Prithivi;  (5)  Jupiter,  Vayu;  (6)  Venus,  Apas;  (7) 
Saturn,  Akasha. 

It  is  quite  possible  that  along  the  same  Chakras 
there  may  be  passing  all  or  any  one  or  more  of  these 
differing  currents  at  one  and  the  same  time.  The 
reader  is  reminded  of  the  telegraph  currents  of  modern 
electricity.  It  is  evident  that  the  real  state  of  Prana 
is  determined  by  the  position  of  these  various  local 
ized  currents.  Now,  if  any  one  or  more  of  these 
tattvic  currents  is  strengthened  by  any  act  of  ours, 
under  any  position  of  the  currents,  it  is  only  when  we 
have  to  a  degree  the  same  position  of  the  currents 
that  the  tattvic  effect  will  make  its  appearance  in  full 
strength.  There  may  also  be  appearances  of  slight 
power  at  various  times,  but  the  full  strength  will  never 
be  exhausted  until  we  have  the  same  position  of  these 
currents  to  the  minutest  division  of  a  degree.  This 
takes  ages  upon  ages,  and  it  is  quite  impossible  that  the 
effect  should  pass  off  in  the  present  life.  Hence  arises 
the  necessity  of  Reincarnation  upon  this  earth. 

The  accumulated  tattvic  effects  of  a  life's  work  give 
to  each  life  a  general  tinge  of  its  own.  This  tinge 
wears  off  gradually,  as  the  component  colours  pass  off 
or  weaken  in  strength,  one  by  one.  When  each  of 
the  component  colours  is  one  by  one  sufficiently  worn 
out,  the  general  colour  of  a  life  passes  off.  The  gross 
body  which  was  given  birth  to  by  this  particular 
colour  ceases  to  respond  to  the  now  generally  different 
coloured  Prana.  The  Prana  does  not  pass  out  of  the 
Sushumna.  Death  is  the  result. 



As  already  said,  the  two  ordinary  forms  of  death 
are  the  positive  through  the  brain,  and  the  negative 
through  the  heart.  This  is  death  through  the  Su- 
shumna.  In  this  the  Tattvas  are  all  potential.  Death 
may  also  take  place  through  the  other  Nadis.  In  this 
case  there  must  always  be  the  prevalence  of  one  or 
more  of  the  Tattvas. 

Towards  different  regions  does  the  Prana  go  after 
death,  according  to  the  paths  through  which  it  passes 
out  of  the  body.  Thus : 

1.  The  negative  Sushumna  takes  it  to  the  moon. 

2.  The  positive  Sushumna  takes  it  to  the  sun. 

3.  The  Agni  of  the  other  Nadis  takes  it  to  the  hill 
known  as  Raurava  (fire). 

4.  The  Apas  of  the  other  Nadis  takes  it  to  the  hill 
known  as  Ambarisha,  and  so  on;    the  Akasha,   the 
Vayu  and  the  Prithivi  take  it  to  Andhatamisra,  Kala- 
st"itra,    and    Mahakala   respectively  (see    Yoga   Sutra, 
Pada  in,  Aphorism  26,  commentary). 

The  negative  path  is  that  generally  taken  by  the 
Prana.  This  path  takes  it  to  the  moon  (the  Chandra- 
loka)  because  the  moon  is  the  lord  of  the  negative  sys 
tem,  the  negative  currents,  and  the  negative  Sushumna 
—the  heart,  which  therefore  is  a  continuation  of  the 
lunar  Prana.  The  Prana  which  has  the  general  negative 
colour  can  only  move  along  this  path,  and  it  is  trans 
ferred  naturally  to  the  reservoirs,  the  centres  of  the  nega 
tive  Prana.  Those  men  in  whom  the  two  hours'  lunar 
current  is  passing  more  or  less  regularly  take  this  path. 

PRANA.  75 

The  Prana  which  has  lost  the  intensity  of  its  terres 
trial  colour,  energizes  lunar  matter  according  to  its 
own  strength,  and  thus  establishes  there  for  itself  a 
sort  of  passive  life.  The  mind  is  here  in  a  state  of 
dream.  The  tattvic  impressions  of  gathered-up  forces 
pass  before  it  in  the  same  way  as  they  do  in  our  earthly 
dreams.  The  only  difference  is  that  in  that  state  there 
is  not  the  superposed  force  of  indigestion  to  render 
the  tattvic  impressions  so  strong  and  sudden  as  to  be 
terrible.  That  dreamy  state  is  characterised  by  extreme 
calmness.  Whatever  our  mind  has  in  it  of  the  inter 
esting  experiences  of  this  world;  whatever  we  have 
thought,  or  heard,  or  seen,  or  enjoyed;  the  sense  of 
satisfaction  and  enjoyment,  the  bliss  and  playfulness 
of  the  Apas  and  the  Prithivi  Tattvas,  the  languid 
sense  of  love  of  the  Agni,  the  agreeable  forgetfulness 
of  the  Akasha,  all  make  their  appearance  one  after 
the  other  in  perfect  calm.  The  painful  impressions 
make  no  appearance,  because  the  painful  arises  when 
any  impression  forces  itself  upon  the  mind  which  is 
out  of  harmony  with  its  surroundings.  It  is  in  this 
state  that  the  mind  lives  in  the  Chandraloka,  as  will 
be  better  understood  when  I  come  to  speak  oi  the 
tattvic  causes  of  dreams. 

Ages  roll  on  in  this  Loka,  during  which  the  mind, 
according  to  the  same  general  laws  which  obtain  for 
Prana,  wears  out  the  impressions  of  a  former  liie.  The 
intense  tattvic  colours  which  the  ceaseless  activity  of 
Prana  had  called  into  existence  therein  gradually  fade, 
until  at  last  the  mind  comes  upon  a  permanent  level 


with  the  Prana.  Both  of  them  have  now  lost  the 
tinge  of  a  former  life.  Of  Prana  it  might  be  said 
that  it  has  a  new  appearance;  of  the  mind,  that  it  has 
a  new  consciousness.  When  they  are  both  in  this 
state,  both  very  weak,  the  accumulated  tattvic  effects 
of  Prana  begin  to  show  themselves  with  the  return  of 
the  same  positions  of  the  stars.  These  draw  us  back 
from  the  lunar  to  the  terrestrial  Prana.  The  mind  at 
this  stage  has  no  individuality  worth  taking  account 
of,  so  that  it  is  drawn  by  Prana  to  wherever  its  affini 
ties  carry  it.  Thus  it  joins  with  those  solar  rays 
which  wear  a  similar  colour,  all  those  mighty  poten 
tialities  which  show  themselves  in  the  future  man 
being  as  yet  quite  latent.  With  the  rays  of  the  sun  it 
passes  according  to  the  ordinary  laws  of  vegetation 
into  grain  bearing  similar  colours.  Each  grain  has  a 
separate  individuality,  which  accounts  for  its  separate 
existence,  and  there  may  be  in  many  a  grain  human 
potentialities,  giving  it  an  individuality  of  its  own. 

Similarly  do  human  individualities  come  back  from 
the  five  states  which  are  known  as  hells.  These  are 
the  states  of  posthumous  existence  fixed  for  those 
men  who  enjoy  to  an  excessive  and  violent  degree  the 
various  impressions  of  each  of  the  Tattvas.  As  the 
tattvic  intensity,  which  disturbs  the  balance  and  there 
fore  causes  pain,  wears  off  in  time,  the  individual  Prana 
passes  off  to  the  lunar  sphere,  and  thence  undergoes 
the  same  states  which  have  been  above  described. 

Along  the  positive  path  through  the  Brahmarandhra 
pass  those  Pranas  which  transcend  the  general  effects 

PRANA.  77 

of  time,  and  therefore  do  not  return  to  earth  under 
ordinary  laws.     It  is  time  that  brings  back  the  Pranas 
from  the  moon,  and  the  least  strong  tattvic  condition 
comes  into  play  with   the   return   of   identical  astral 
positions;  but  the  sun  being  the  keeper  of  time  him 
self,  and  the  strongest  factor  in  the  determination  of 
his  tattvic  condition,  it  would  be  impossible  for  solar 
time    to    affect  solar    Prana.      Therefore,  only   those 
Pranas  travel  towards  the  sun  in  which  there  is  almost 
no  preponderance  of  any  tattvic  colour.     This  is  the 
state  of  the  Prana  of  Yogis  alone.     By  the  constant 
practice  of  the  eight  branches  of  Yoga,  the  Prana  is 
purified   of    any  very  strongly  personifying   colours, 
and  since  it  is  evident  that  on  such  a  Prana  time  can 
have  no  effect  under  ordinary  circumstances,  they  pass 
off  to  the  sun.     These  Pranas  have  no  distinct  per 
sonifying  colours;  all  of  them  that  go  to  the  sun  have 
almost  the  same  general  tinge.     But  their  minds  are 
different.       They    can    be    distinguished    from    each 
other,  according  to  the  particular  branch  of  science 
which  they  have  cultivated,  or  according  to  the  par 
ticular  and  varying  methods  of  mental  improvement 
which  they  have  followed  on  earth.     In  this  state  the 
mind  is  not  dependent,  as  in  the  moon,  upon  the  im 
pressions  of   Prana.      Constant  practice  of  Yoga  has 
rendered   it  an  independent  worker,  depending  only 
upon  the  soul,  and   moulding  the   Prana  to  its  own 
shapes,  and  giving  it  its  own  colours.     This  is  a  kind 
of  Moksha. 

Although  the  sun  is  the  most  potent  lord   of   life, 


and  the  tattvic  condition  of  Prana  has  now  no  effect 
upon  the  Prana  which  has  passed  to  the  sun,  it  is  still 
affected  by  the  planetary  currents,  and  there  are  times 
when  this  effect  is  very  strong,  so  that  the  earthly  , 
conditions  in  which  minds  have  previously  existed 
are  again  present  with  them.  A  desire  to  do  the  same 
sort  of  good  they  did  in  the  world  in  their  previous 
life  takes  possession  of  them,  and  impelled  by  this 
desire  they  sometimes  come  back  to  the  earth.  Shan- 
karacharya  has  noticed  in  his  commentary  on  the 
Brahmasiitra  that  Apantartamah,  one  of  the  Vedic 
Rishis,  thus  appeared  on  earth  as  Krishna  Dvaipa- 
yana,  about  the  end  of  the  Dvapara  and  the  beginning 
of  the  Kali  Yuga. 

As  it  is  desirable  that  as  much  should  be  known 
about  Prana  as  possible,  I  give  below  some  quotations 
on  the  subject  from  the  Prashnopanishad.  They  will 
give  additional  interest  to  the  subject,  and  present  it 
in  a  more  comprehensive  and  far  more  attractive  garb. 

"He  who  knows  the  birth,  the  coming  in,  the  places 
of  manifestation,  the  rule,  and  the  microcosmic  appear 
ance  of  Prana  becomes  immortal  by  that  knowledge." 

Practical  knowledge  of  the  laws  of  life  and  a  sub 
ordination  of  the  lower  nature  to  the  behests  of  such 
laws,  must  naturally  end  in  the  passing  of  the  soul 
out  of  the  shadowy  side  of  life  into  the  original  light 
of  the  sun.  This  means  immortality,  that  is,  passing 
beyond  the  power  of  terrestrial  death. 

But  to  go  en  with  what  the  Upanishad  has  to  say 
of  the  things  to  be  known  about  Prana. 


Till-;    BIRTH   OF   PR  ANA. 

The  Praiu  is  born  from  the  Atina;  it  arises  in  the 
Atnia,  like  the  shadow  in  the  body. 

The  human  body,  or  other  organism,  coming  as  it 
does  between  the  sun  and  the  portion  of  space  on  the 
other  side,   throws  a    shade   />/   the  ocean  of  Prana. 
Similarly  is  the  Prana  seen  as  a  shade  in  the  macro- 
cosmic  soul  (Ishvara)  because  the  macrocosmic  mind 
(Manti)  intervenes.     Briefly  the  Prana  is  the  shade  of 
Mann  caused  by  the  light  of  the  Logos,  the  macro- 
cosmic  centre.     The  suns  owe  their  birth  in  this  shade 
to  the  impression  upon  it  of  the  macrocosmic  mental 
ideas.     These  suns—  the  centres  of  Prana,  become  in 
their  turn  the  positive  starting-point  of  further  develop 
ment.    The  Mantis,  throwing  their  shade  by  the  inter 
vention   of  the   suns,   give  birth   in  those  shades  to 
planets,  etc.     The  suns  throwing  their  shades  by  the 
intervention  of  planets,  give  birth  to  moons.     Then 
these  different  centres  begin  to  act  upon  the  planets, 
and  the  sun  descends  on  them  in  the  shape  of  various 
organisms,  man  included. 

This  Prana  is  found  in  the  macrocosm  as  the  ocean 
of  life  with  the  sun  for  its  centre.  It  assumes  two 
phases  of  existence—  the  Prana,  the  solar,  positive 
life-matter;  the  Rayi,  the  lunar,  negative  life-matter. 
The  former  is  the  northern  phase  and  the  eastern;  the 
latter  is  the  southern  phase  and  the  western.  In  every 
moment  of  terrestrial  life,  we  have  thus  the  northern 


and  southern  centres  of  Prana,  the  centres  from  which 
the  southern  and  northern  phases  of  life-matter  take 
their  start.  The  eastern  and  western  halves  are  there 

At  every  moment  of  time — i.e.,  in  every  Truti — there 
are  millions  of  Trutis — perfect  organisms — in  space. 
This  may  require  some  explanation.  The  units  of 
time  and  space  are  the  same — a  Truti.  Take  any  one 
Truti  of  time.  It  is  well  known  that  every  moment 
of  time  the  tattvic  rays  of  Prana  go  in  every  direction 
from  every  point  to  every  other  point.  Hence  it  is 
clear  enough  that  every  Truti  of  space  is  a  perfect 
picture  of  the  whole  apparatus  of  Prana,  with  all  its 
centres  and  sides,  and  positive  and  negative  relations. 
To  express  a  good  deal  in  a  few  words,  every  Truti  of 
space  is  a  perfect  organism.  In  the  ocean  of  Prana 
which  surrounds  the  sun  there  are  innumerable  such 

While  essentially  the  same,  it  is  easy  to  understand 
that  the  following  items  will  make  a  difference  in  the 
general  colour,  appearance,  and  forms  of  these  Trutis. 

1.  Distance  from  the  solar  centre. 

2.  Inclination  from  the  solar  axis. 

I  take  the  earth  for  illustration.  That  zone  of  solar 
life,  taking  into  consideration  both  the  distance  and 
the  inclination  in  which  the  earth  moves,  gives  birth 
to  earth-life.  This  zone  of  earth-life  is  known  as  the 
ecliptic.  Now  every  Truti  of  space  in  this  ecliptic  is 
a  separate  individual  organism.  As  the  earth  moves 
in  her  annual  course,  />.,  as  the  Truti  of  time  changes, 


these  permanent  Trntis  of  space  change  the  phases  of 
their  life.  But  their  permanency  is  never  impaired. 
They  retain  their  individuality  all  the  same. 

All  the  planetary  influences  reach  these  Trntis 
always,  wherever  the  planets  may  be  in  their  journey. 
The  changing  distance  and  inclination  is,  of  course, 
always  causing  a  change  of  life-phase. 

This  Truti  of  space,  from  its  permanent  position  in 
the  ecliptic,  while  maintaining  its  connection  with  all 
the  planets,  at  the  same  time  sends  its  tattvic  rays  to 
every  other  quarter  of  space.  They  come  also  to  the 

It  is  a  condition  of  earth-life  that  the  positive  and 
negative  currents  of  life  —  the  Prana  and  the  Rayi  —  be 
equally  balanced.  When,  therefore,  in  this  ecliptical 
Truti  the  two  phases  of  life-matter  are  equally  strong, 
the  tattvic  rays  which  come  from  it  to  the  earth  ener 
gize  gross  matter  there.  The  moment  that  the  balance 
is  disturbed  by  the  tattvic  influence  of  the  planets,  or 
by  some  other  cause,  terrestrial  death  ensues.  This 
simply  means  that  the  tattvic  rays  of  the  Truti  which 
fall  on  earth  cease  to  energize  gross  matter,  although 
they  do  fall  there  all  the  same,  and  although  the  Truti 
is  unaltered  in  its  permanent  ecliptical  abode.  In  this 
posthumous  state,  the  human  Truti  will  energize  gross 
matter  in  that  quarter  of  space  whose  laws  of  relative, 
negative,  and  positive  predominance  coincide  with  that 
state.  Thus,  when  the  negative  life-matter,  the  Rayi, 
becomes  over  strong,  the  energization  of  the  Truti 
is  transferred  from  the  earth  to  the  moon.  Similarly 


it  may  pass  to  other  spheres.  When  the  terrestrial 
balance  is  again  restored,  when  this  posthumous  life 
has  been  lived,  the  energization  is  again  transferred  to 
the  earth. 

Such  is  the  macrocosmic  appearance  of  Prana,  with 
the  pictures  of  all  the  organisms  of  the  earth.  And 
now  for 


How  does  this  Pranamaya  Kosha — this  Truti  of  the 
macrocosm — come  into  this  body?  "By  actions  at 
whose  root  lies  the  mind,"  says  briefly  the  Upanishad. 
It  has  been  explained  how  every  action  changes  the 
nature  of  the  Pranamaya  Kosha,  and  it  will  be  ex 
plained  in  the  essay  on  the  "Cosmic  Picture  Gallery" 
how  these  changes  are  represented  in  the  cosmical 
counterpart  of  our  life-principle.  It  is  evident  that 
by  these  actions  is  produced  the  change  in  the  general 
relative  nature  of  the  Prana  and  the  Rayi  which  has 
been  spoken  of  in  the  foregoing  part  of  this  essay. 
It  is  hardly  necessary  to  say  that  the  mind — the  human 
free  will — lies  at  the  root  of  those  actions  which  disturb 
the  tattvic  balance  of  the  life-principle.  Hence  "the 
Prana  comes  into  this  body  by  actions,  at  whose  root 
lies  the  mind." 


"As  the  paramount  power  appoints  its  servants, 
telling  them,  '  Rule  such  and  siich  villages,'  so  does 
the  Prana.  It  puts  its  different  manifestations  in  dif 
ferent  places.  In  the  Payu  [anus]  and  Upastha  is  the 

PRAXA.  8^ 

Apana  [which  discharges  faeces  and  urine].  In  the  eye 
and  the  ear  are  the  manifestations  known  as  sight  and 
hearing  [Chaksliuh  and  Shrotra].  The  Prana  remains 
itself,  going  out  of  mouth  and  nose.  Between  [the 
places  of  Prana  and  Apana,  about  the  navel]  lives  the 
Samana.  It  is  this  that  carries  equally  [all  over  the 
body]  the  food  [and  drink]  that  is  thrown  in  the  fire. 
Hence  are  those  seven  lights.  [By  means  of  Prana, 
light  of  knowledge  is  thrown  over  colour,  form, 
sound,  etc.] 

"In  the  heart  verily  is  this  Atma  [the  Pranamaya 
Kosha],  and  in  it,  verily,  the  other  coils.  Here  there 
are  a  hundred  and  one  Nadis,  each  Nadi  containing  a 
hundred  coils.  In  each  of  these  branch  Nadis  there 
are  72,000  other  Nadis.  In  these  moves  the  Vyana. 

"By  one  [the  Sushumna]  going  upward,  the  Udana 
carries  to  good  worlds  by  means  of  goodness,  and  to 
evil  ones  by  means  of  evil;  by  both  to  the  world  of 

"The  sun  is,  verily,  the  macrocosmic  Prana;  he 
rises,  and  thereby  helps  the  eyesight.  The  power  that 
is  in  the  earth  keeps  up  the  power  of  Apana;  the 
Akasha  [the  ethereal  matter]  that  is  between  heaven 
and  earth,  helps  the  Samana. 

"The  ethereal  life-matter  [independent  of  its  being 
between  the  earth  and  heaven]  which  fills  macrocosmic 
space,  is  Vyana. 

"The  Tejas — the  luminiferous  ether — is  Udana; 
hence  he  whose  natural  fire  is  cooled  down  [ap 
proaches  death]. 


"Then  the  man  goes  towards  second  birth;  the 
organs  and  senses  go  into  the  mind;  the  mind  of  the 
man  comes  to  the  Prana  [its  manifestations  now  ceas 
ing].  The  Prana  is  combined  with  the  Tejas,  going 
with  the  soul,  it  carries  it  to  the  spheres  which  are 
in  view." 

The  different  manifestations  of  Prana  in  the  body, 
and  the  places  where  they  manifest  themselves  have 
been  dwelt  upon.  But  there  appear  in  this  extract 
certain  other  statements  of  interest.  It  is  said  that 
this  Atma,  this  Pranamaya  Kosha  with  the  other  coils, 
verily,  is  located  in  the  heart.  The  heart,  as  has 
been  seen,  represents  the  negative  side  of  life — the 
Rayi.  When  the  positive  Prana,  which  is  properly 
located  in  the  brain,  impresses  itself  upon  the  Rayi 
—the  heart  and  the  Nadis  that  flow  from  it — the 
forms  of  life  with  the  actions  of  man  come  into  exist 
ence.  It  is  therefore,  properly  speaking,  the  reflection 
in  the  heart  that  works  in  the  world,  this  reflection 
being  the  proper  lord  of  the  sensuous  and  active 
organs  of  life.  If  this  being  in  the  heart  learns  not 
how  to  live  here,  the  sensuous  and  active  organs  both 
lose  their  life  and  the  connection  with  the  world  ceases. 
The  being  of  the  brain  which  has  no  immediate  con 
nection  with  the  world,  except  through  the  heart,  now 
remains  in  its  unrestrained  purity;  in  short,  the  soul 
goes  to  the  Suryloka  (the  sun). 


The  next  point  of  interest  is  the  description  of  the 
functions  of  the  external  Prana,  which  lie  at  the  root 

PRANA.  85 

of,  and  help  the  working  of  the  individualized  Prana. 
It  is  said  that  the  sun  is  the  Prana.  This  is  evident 
enough,  and  has  been  mentioned  many  a  time  before 
this.  The  most  important  function  of  life,  inspiration 
and  expiration,  the  function  which,  according  to  the 
Science  of  Breath,  is  the  one  law  of  the  existence  of 
the  universe  on  all  the  planes  of  life,  is  brought  into 
existence  and  kept  in  activity  by  the  sun  himself.  It 
is  the  solar  breath  that  constitutes  his  existence,  and 
this  reflected  in  man  gives  birth  to  human  breath. 

The  sun  then  appears  in  another  phase.  He  rises, 
and  as  he  does  so,  he  supports  the  eyes  in  their  natural 

Similarly  the  power  that  is  in  the  earth  sustains  the 
Apana  manifestation  of  Prana.  It  is  the  power  which 
draws  everything  towards  the  earth,  says  the  commen 
tator.  In  modern  language  it  is  gravity. 

Something  more  might  here  be  said  about  the 
Udana  manifestation  of  Prana.  As  everybody  knows, 
there  is  a  phase  of  microcosm ic  Prana  which  carries 
everything,  names,  forms,  sounds,  sights,  and  all  other 
sensations,  from  one  place  to  another.  This  is  other 
wise  known  as  the  universal  Agni,  or  the  Tejas  of  the 
text.  The  localized  manifestation  of  this  phase  of 
Prana  is  called  Udana,  or  that  which  carries  the  life- 
principle  from  one  place  to  another.  The  particular 
destination  is  determined  by  past  actions,  and  this 
universal  Agni  carries  the  Prana,  with  the  soul,  to 
different  worlds. 

This  Prana  is  then  a  mighty  being,  and  if  its  local- 


ized  manifestations  were  to  work  in  unison,  and  with 
temperance,  doing  their  own  duty,  but  not  usurping 
the  time  and  place  of  others,  there  would  be  but  little 
evil  in  the  world. 

But  each  of  these  manifestations  asserts  its  sole 
power  over  the  poor  bewildered  human  soul.  Each 
of  these  claims  the  whole  life  of  man  to  be  its  owu 
proper  domain. 

"The  Akasha,  the  Vayu,  the  Agni,  the  Prithivi, 
the  Apas,  speech,  sight  and  hearing— all  of  them  say 
clearly  that  they  are  the  sole  monarchs  of  the  human 


The  principal   Prana — he  whose  manifestations  all 

these  are — tells  them : 

"Be  not  forgetful,  it  is  I  who  sustain  the  human 
body,  dividing  myself  into  five." 

If  the  five  manifestations  of  Prana  with  all  their 
minor  subdivisions  revolt  against  him,  if  each  begins 
to  assert  its  own  lordship,  and  ceases  to  work  for  the 
general  benefit  of  the  lord  paramount,  which  is  the 
real  life,  misery  makes  its  sad  appearance  to  harass 
the  poor  human  soul. 

"But  the  manifestations  of  Prana,  blinded  by  ignor 
ance,"  would  not  "put  forth"  at  the  admonitions  of 
their  lord. 

"He  leaves  the  body,  and  as  he  leaves,  all  the  other 
minor  Pranas  leave  it,  too;  they  stay  there  as  he 

Then  are  their  eyes  opened. 

"As  the  bees  follow  the  queen  bee  in  every  way, 

I 'RAX  A.  87 

so  do  the  Pranas — namely,  speech,  the  mind,  the  eye, 
the  ear — follow  him  with  devotion,  and  thus  praise 

"lie  is  the  Agni,  the  cause  of  heat;  he  is  the  sun 
["the  giver  of  light];  he  is  the  cloud,  he  is  the  Indra, 
he  is  the  Vayu,  he  is  the  Prithivi,  he  is  the  Ravi,  and 
the  Deva,  the  Sat,  and  the  Asat,*  and  he  is  the  im 

"Like  the  spokes  in  the  nave  of  a  wheel,  every 
thing  is  sustained  in  Prana — the  hymns  of  the  AY^, 
the  Yajnr,  and  the  Sdiua  Vcdas,  the  sacrifice,  the 
Kshatriyas  and  the  Brahnians,  etc. 

"Thou  art  the  progenitor;  thou  movest  in  the 
womb;  thou  art  born  in  the  shape  of  the  father  or 
the  mother;  to  thee,  ()  Prana,  that  dwelleth  in  the 
body  with  thy  manifestations,  these  creatures  offer 

"Thou  art  the  carrier  of  offerings  to  the  Devas, 
thou  art  the  carrier  of  oblations  to  the  fathers;  thou 
art  the  action  and  the  power  of  the  senses  and  other 
manifestations  of  life. 

"Thou  art,  O  Prana,  the  great  lord  in  power,  the 
Rudra  (the  destroyer)  and  the  preserver;  thou  movest 
in  the  sky  as  the  sun,  thou  art  the  preserver  of  the 
lights  of  heaven. 

"When  thou  rainest,  these  creatures  are  full  of  joy 
because  they  hope  to  have  plenty  of  food. 

"Thou   art   Prana,    pure   by    nature;    thou    art    the 

*  Rnyi  and  Asat  are  the  negative,  Deva  and  vSat  the  positive 
phases  of  life-matter. 


consumer  of  all  oblations,  as  the  Ekarshi  fire  [of  the 
Atharvas] ;  thou  art  the  preserver  of  all  existence; 
we  are  to  thee  the  offerers  of  food ;  thou  art  our  father 
as  the  recorder  [or  the  life-giver  of  the  recorder]. 

"Make  healthy  that  appearance  of  thine  which  is 
located  in  the  speech,  the  ear,  the  eye,  and  that  which 
is  stretched  towards  the  mind ;  do  not  fly  away. 

"Whatever  exists  in  the  three  heavens,  all  of '  it  is 
in  the  power  of  Prana.  Protect  us  like  a  mother  her 
offspring;  give  us  wealth  and  intellect." 

With  this  I  conclude  my  description  of  Prana,  the 
second  principle  of  the  universe,  and  the  human  body. 
The  epithets  bestowed  upon  this  mighty  being  in  the 
above  extract  will  be  easy  of  understanding  in  the 
light  of  all  that  has  gone  before.  It  is  now  time  to 
trace  the  working  of  the  universal  tattvic  Law  of 
Breath  on  the  next  higher  plane  of  life — the  mind 
(Manoinaya  Kosha). 



No  theory  of  the  life  of  the  universe  is  at  once  so 
simple  and  so  grand  as  the  theory  of  breath  (Svara). 
It  is  the  one  universal  motion,  which  makes  its 
appearance  in  Maya  by  virtue  of  the  unseen  substra 
tum  of  the  cosmos,  the  Parabrahman  of  the  Vedan- 
tins.  The  most  appropriate  expression  for  Svara  in 
English  is  the  "current  of  life."  The  Indian  Science 
of  Breath  investigates  and  formulates  the  laws,  or 
rather  the  one  universal  law,  according  to  which 
this  current  of  life,  this  motive  power  of  universal 
intelligence,  running,  as  Emerson  so  beautifully  puts 
it,  along  the  wire  of  thought,  governs  evolution  and 
involution  and  all  the  phenomena  of  human  life, 
physiological,  mental,  and  spiritual.  In  the  whole 
length  and  breadth  of  this  universe  there  is  no  pheno 
menon,  great  or  small,  which  does  not  find  its  most 
natural,  most  intelligible,  and  most  apposite  explana 
tion  in  the  theory  of  the  five  modes  of  manifestation 
of  this  universal  motion— the  five  elementary  Tattvas. 
In  the  foregoing  essays  I  have  tried  to  explain  generally 
how  every  physiological  phenomenon  was  governed 


by  the  five  Tattvas.  The  object  of  the  present  essay 
is  to  run  over  briefly  the  various  phenomena  relating 
to  the  third  higher  body  of  man — the  Manomaya 
Kosha,  the  mind — and  note  how  symmetrically  and 
universally  the  Tattvas  bring  about  the  formation  and 
work  of  this  principle. 


In  general  language  it  is  knowledge  that  distin 
guishes  the  mind  from  physiological  life  (Prana),  but 
it  will  be  seen  on  a  little  consideration  that  different 
degrees  of  knowledge  might  very  well  be  taken  as  the 
distinguishing  characteristics  of  the  five  states  of 
matter,  which  in  man  we  call  the  five  principles.  For 
what  is  knowledge  but  a  kind  of  tattvic  motion  of 
breath,  elevated  into  self-consciousness  by  the  presence, 
in  a  greater  or  less  degree,  of  the  element  of  Ahankara 
(egoism)  ?  This  is  no  doubt  the  view  taken  of  know 
ledge  by  the  Vedantic  philosopher  when  he  speaks  of 
intelligence  as  being  the  motive  power,  the  first  cause 
of  the  universe.  The  word  Svara  is  only  a  synonym 
of  intelligence,  the  one  manifestation  of  the  One 
descending  into  Prakriti. 

"I  see  something,"  means,  according  to  our  view  of 
knowledge,  that  my  Manomaya  Kosha  has  been  put 
into  visual  vibration. 

"I  hear,"  means  that  my  Manomaya  Kosha  is  in  a 
state  of  auditory  vibration. 

"I  feel,"  means  that  my  mind  is  in  a  state  of 
tangible  vibration. 

And  so  on  with  the  other  senses. 

THE    MIND.  r>I 

44 1  love,"  means  that  my  mind  is  in  a  state  of  amatory 
vibration  (a  form  of  attraction). 

The  first  state — that  of  the  Anandamaya — is  the 
state  of  the  highest  knowledge.  There  is  then  but 
one  centre,  the  snbstratnm  for  the  whole  infinity  of 
Parabrahman,  and  the  ethereal  vibrations  of  his  breath 
are  one  throughout  the  whole  expanse  of  infinity. 
There  is  but  one  intelligence,  but  one  knowledge. 
The  whole  universe,  with  all  its  potentialities  and 
actualities,  is  a  part  of  that  knowledge.  This  is  the 
highest  state  of  bliss.  There  is  no  consciousness  of 
self  here,  for  the  /  has  only  a  relative  existence,  and 
there  must  be  a  Thou  or  a  He  before  there  can  be  an  /. 

The  Ego  takes  form  when,  in  the  second  plane  of 
existence,  more  than  one  minor  centre  comes  into 
existence.  It  is  for  this  reason  that  the  name  Ahan- 
kara  has  been  given  to  this  state  of  matter.  The 
ethereal  impulses  of  those  centres  are  confined  to  their 
own  particular  domain  in  space,  and  the}'  differ  in 
each  centre.  They  can,  however,  affect  each  other 
just  in  the  same  way  as  the  individualized  ethereal 
impulses  of  one  man  affect  those  of  others.  The 
tattvic  motion  of  one  centre  of  Brahma  is  carried 
along  the  same  universal  lines  as  the  other.  Two 
differing  motions  are  thus  found  in  one  centre.  The 
stronger  impulse  is  called  the  /,  the  weaker  the  Thou 
or  the  /A1  as  the  case  may  be. 

Then  comes  Manas.  Viraj  is  the  centre,  and  Mann 
the  atmosphere  of  this  state.  These  centres  are 
beyond  the  ken  of  ordinary  humanity,  but  they  work 


under  similar  laws  to  those  ruling  the  rest  of  the 
cosmos.  The  suns  move  round  the  Virats  in  the  same 
way  as  the  planets  move  round  the  sun. 


The  composition  of  the  Manu  is  similar  to  that  of 
Prana;  it  is  composed  of  a  still  finer  grade  of  the  five 
Tattvas,  and  this  increased  fineness  endows  the  Tattvas 
with  different  functions. 

The  five  functions  of  Prana  have  been  given.  The 
following  are  the  five  functions  of  Manas,  as  given  by 
Patanjali  and  accepted  by  Vyasa: 

i.  Means  of  knowledge  (Pramana).  2.  False  know 
ledge  (Viparyaya).  3.  Complex  imagination  (Vikalpa). 
4.  Sleep  (Nidra).  5.  Memory  (Smriti). 

All  the  manifestations  of  the  mind  fall  under  one  or 
other  of  these  five  heads.  Thus,  Pramana  includes: 

a.  Perception  (Pratyaksha).  b.  Inference  (Anu- 
inana).  c.  Authority  (Agama). 

Viparyaya  includes: 

a.  Ignorance  (Avidya,  Tamas).  b.  Egoism  (As- 
mita,  Moha).  c.  Retention  (Raga,  Mahamoha).  d. 
Repulsion  (Tamisra,  Dvesha).  c.  Tenacity  of  life 
(Abhinivesha,  Andhatamisra). 

The  remaining  three  have  no  definite  subdivisions. 
I  shall  now  show  that  all  the  modifications  of  thought 
are  forms  of  tattvic  motion  on  the  mental  plane. 

The  word  Pramana  (means  of  knowledge)  is  derived 
from  two  roots,  the  predicative  ma,  and  the  derivative 

THE    MIXD.  Q~ 

root  ana,  with  the  prefix  pra.      The  original  idea  of 
the   root   ma,  is  "to  go,"  "to  move,"  and   hence  "to 
measure.'      The  prefix  pra  gives  to  the  root  the  idea 
of  fulness,  connected  as  it  is  with  the  root  /;•/,  to  fill. 
That  which  moves  exactly  up  or  down  to  the  same 
height  with  any  other  thing  is  the  Pramana  of  that 
thing.     In  becoming  the  Pramana  of  any  other  thing, 
the  first  thing  assumes  certain  qualities  which  it  had 
not  before.     This  is  always  brought  about  by  a  change 
of  state  caused  by  a  certain  kind  of  motion,  for  it  is 
always  motion  that  causes  change  of  state.     This,  in 
fact,  is  also  the  exact  meaning  of  the  word  Pramana, 
as  applied  to  a  particular  manifestation  of  the  mind. 

Pramana  is  a  particular  tattvic  motion  of  the  mental 
body;  its  effect  is  to  put  the  mental  body  into  a  state 
similar  to  that  of  something  else.  The  mind  can 
undergo  as  many  changes  as  the  external  Tattvas  are 
capable  of  imprinting  upon  it,  and  these  changes  have 
been  classified  by  Patanjali  into  three  general  heads. 

a.  Perception  (Pratyaksha) . 

This  is  that  change  of  state  which  the  operations  of 
the  five  sensuous  organs  produce  in  the  mind.  The 
word  is  a  compound  of  prati,  back,  and  aksha,  sensuous 
power,  organ  of  sense.  Hence  is  that  sympathetic 
tattvic  vibration  which  an  organ  of  sense  in  contact 
with  its  object  produces  in  the  mind.  These  changes 
can  be  classified  under  five  general  heads,  according 
to  the  number  of  the  senses. 

The   eye   gives   birth  to   the   Tejas   vibrations;    the 


tongue,  the  skin,  the  ear  and  the  nose  respectively  to 
the  Apas,  the  Vayu,  the  Akasha  and  the  Prithivi 
vibrations.  The  pure  Agiii  causes  the  perception  of 
red,  the  Tej as- Prithivi  of  yellow,  the  Tejas-Apas  of 
white,  the  Tejas-Vayu  of  bine,  and  so  on.  Other 
colours  are  produced  in  the  mind  by  mixed  vibrations 
in  a  thousand  varying  degrees.  The  Apas  gives  soft 
ness,  the  Vayu  roughness,  the  Agni  harshness.  We 
see  through  the  eyes  not  only  colour,  but  also  form. 
It  will  be  remembered  that  a  particular  Jorm  has  been 
assigned  to  every  tattvic  vibration,  and  all  the  forms 
of  gross  matter  answer  to  corresponding  tattvic  vibra 
tions.  Thus  form  can  be  perceived  through  every 
sense.  The  eyes  can  see  form,  the  tongue  can  taste  it, 
the  skin  can  touch  it,  and  so  on.  This  may  probably 
appear  to  be  a  novel  assertion,  but  it  must  be  remem 
bered  that  virtue  is  not  limited  to  its  outward  expres 
sion  or  act.  The  ear  would  hear  form,  if  the  more 
general  use  of  the  eye  and  the  skin  for  this  purpose 
had  not  almost  stifled  it  into  inaction.  The  one  form 
is  differentiated  in  at  least  five  modes,  and  each  mode 
calls  the  same  thing  by  a  different  name.  This  is 
aptly  illustrated  by  the  physiology  of  the  five  sense 

The  pure  Apas  vibrations  cause  an  astringent  taste, 
the  Apas-Prithivi  a  sweet,  the  Apas-Agni  hot,  the 
Apas- Vayu  acid,  and  so  on.  Innumerable  other  varia 
tions  of  taste  are  caused  by  intermediate  vibrations  in 
various  degrees. 

The  case  is  similar  with  the  vocal  and  other  changes 

THR    MIXD.  95 

of  vibration.  It  is  clear  that  our  perceptive  knowledge 
is  nothing  more  than  a  veritable  lattvic  motion  of  the 
mental  body,  caused  by  the  sympathetic  communica 
tions  of  the  vibrations  of  Prana,  just  as  a  stringed 
instrument  of  a  certain  tension  begins  to  vibrate 
spontaneously  when  vibration  is  set  up  in  another 
similar  instrument. 

b.  Inference  (Anuumna). 

The  word  Anumana  has  the  same  roots  as  the  word 
Pramana.     The  only  difference  is  in  the  prefix.     We 
have   here  ann,    "after,"    instead    of  p™.      Inference 
(Anumana)  is  therefore  after-motion.    When  the  mind 
is  capable  of  sustaining  two  vibrations  at  one  and  the 
same  time,  then,  if  either  of  these  vibrations  is  set  up 
and  perceived,  the  second  vibration  must  also  manifest 
itself.     Thus,  suppose  a  man  pinches  me.     The  com 
plex  vibrations  that  make   up  the  perception  of  the 
action  of  a  man  pinching  me  are  produced  in  my  mind. 
I  recognize  the  phenomena.     Almost  simultaneously 
with  these  vibrations  another  set  of  vibrations  is  pro 
duced   in  me.     I  call   this  pain.     Now  here  are  two 
kinds  of  tattvic  motion,  the  one  coming  after  the  other. 
If  at  any  other  time  I  feel  similar  pain,  the  image  of 
the  man  pinching  will  be  recalled  to  my  consciousness. 
This    after-motion    is    "inference."      Induction    and 
deduction  are  both  modifications  of  this  after-motion. 
For  instance  the  sun  always  appears  to  rise  in  a  certain 
direction.     The  concept  of  that  direction  becomes  for 
ever  associated  in  my  mind  with  the  risincr  of  the  sun. 


Whenever  I  think  of  the  phenomenon  of  sunrise,  the 
concept  of  that  direction  presents  itself.  I  therefore 
say  that  the  sun  rises  as  a  rule  in  that  direction. 
Inference  is,  therefore,  nothing  more  than  a  tattvic 
motion  coming  after  another  related  one. 

c.  Authority  (Agama). 

The  third  modification  of  what  is  called  the  means 
of  knowledge  (Pramana)  is  authority  (Agama).  What 
is  this?  I  read  in  my  geography,  or  hear  from  the 
lips  of  my  teacher  that  Britain  is  surrounded  by  the 
ocean.  Now  what  has  connected  these  words  in  my 
mind  with  the  picture  of  Britain,  the  ocean,  and  their 
mutual  relations?  Certainly  it  is  not  perception,  and 
therefore  not  inference,  which  must  by  nature  work 
through  sensuous  knowledge.  What  then?  There 
must  be  some  third  modification. 

The  fact  that  words  possess  the  power  to  raise  a 
certain  picture  in  our  minds  is  one  of  very  deep  in 
terest.  Every  Indian  philosopher  recognizes  it  as  a 
third  modification  of  the  mind,  but  it  receives  no 
recognition  at  the  hands  of  modern  European  philo 

There  is,  however,  little  doubt  that  the  colour 
corresponding  to  this  mental  modification  differs  from 
that  corresponding  to  either  perception  or  inference. 
The  colour  belonging  to  the  perceptive  modifications 
of  the  mind  is  always  single  in  its  nature.  A  certain 
phase  of  the  Tejas  vibration  must  always  prevail  in 
the  visual  modification,  and  similarly  the  vibrations 

THE    MIND.  97 

of  other  Tattvas  correspond  to  our  different  sensuous 
modifications.     Each  of  these  manifestations  has  its 
own  distinctive  colour.     The  red  will  appear  as  well 
in  the  visual  as  in  the  auditory  or  any  other  vibration, 
but  the  red  of  the  visual  vibration  will  be  bright  and 
pure;  that  of  the  organ  of  smell  will  be  tinged  with 
yellow;  that  of  the  organ  of  touch  with  blue;  and  the 
sonoriferous  ether  will  be  somewhat  dark.     There  is, 
therefore,  not  the  least  likelihood  that  the  vocal  vibra 
tion  will  coincide  with  the  pure  perceptive  vibration. 
The  vocal  vibrations  are  double  in  their  nature,  and 
they  can  only,  in  any  case,  coincide  with  the  inferential 
vibrations ;  and  here,  too,  they  can  only  coincide  with 
the  auditory  vibrations.      A  little  consideration  will, 
however,  show  that  there  is  some  difference  between 
the  vocal  and  inferential  vibrations.     In  inference  a 
certain  modification  of  sound  in  our  mind  is  followed 
by  a  certain  visual  picture,  and  both  these  vibrations 
retain  in  our  mind  an  equally  important  position.    We 
place  two  percepts  together,  compare  them,  and  then 
say  that  one  follows  the  other.     In  the  verbal  modifi 
cation  there  is  no  comparison,  no  simultaneous  con 
sciousness,  no  placing  together  of  the  two  percepts. 
The  one  causes  the  other,  no  doubt,  but  we  are  not  at 
all  conscious  of  the  fact.    In  inference  the  simultaneous 
presence  for  some  time  of  both  the  cause  and  the  effect 
brings  about  a  change  in  the  colour  of  the  effect.    The 
difference  is  less  great  in  the  vocal  as  compared  with 
the  inferential  vibration.    Axiomatic  knowledge  is  not 
inferential  in  the  present,  though  it  has  no  doubt  been 


so  in  the  past;  in  the  present  it  has  become  native  to 
the  mind. 

This  is  the  second  mental  modification.  This  word 
also  is  derived  from  a  root  meaning  motion— i  or  ay, 
"to  go,"  "to  move."  The  prefix  part  is  connected 
with  the  root  pra,  and  gives  the  same  idea  to  the  root. 
Paryaya  has  the  same  radical  meaning  as  Pramana. 
The  word  Viparyaya  therefore  means  "a  motion 
removed  from  the  motion  which  coincides  with  the 
object."  The  vibrations  of  Pramana  coincide  in  nature 
with  the  vibrations  of  the  object  of  perception;  not  so 
the  vibrations  of  Viparyaya.  Certain  acquired  condi 
tions  of  the  mind  imprint  on  the  percepts  a  new  colour 
of  their  own,  and  thus  distinguish  them  from  the 
percepts  of  Pramana.  There  are  five  modifications  of 
this  manifestation. 

a.  Ignorance  (Avidyd). 

This  is  the  general  field  for  the  manifestation  of  all 
the  modifications  of  Viparyaya  (false  knowledge).  The 
word  comes  from  the  root  vid,  "to  know,"  the  prefix 
a,  and  the  suffix  ya.  The  original  meaning  of  the  root 
is  "to  be,"  "to  exist."  The  original  meaning  of  Vidya 
is,  therefore,  "the  state  of  a  thing  as  it  is,"  or  expressed 
in  terms  of  the  mental  plane  in  one  word,  "knowledge." 
As  long  as  in  the  face  of  a  human  being  I  see  a  face 
and  nothing  else,  my  mental  vibration  is  said  to  be 
Vidya.  But  as  soon  as  I  see  a  moon,  or  something  else 
not  a  face,  when  it  is  a  face  I  am  looking  at,  my  mental 


vibration  is  no  longer  said  to  be  Vidya,  but  Avidya. 
Avidya  (ignorance)  is  therefore  not  a  negative  concep 
tion,  it  is  just  as  positive  as  Vidya  itself.  It  is  a  great 
mistake  to  suppose  that  words  having  the  privative 
prefixes  always  imply  abstractions  and  never  realities. 
This,  however,  is  a  digression.  The  state  of  Avidya 
s  that  state  in  which  the  mental  vibration  is  disturbed 
by  that  of  Akasha,  and  some  other  Tattvas,  which 
thus  produce  false  appearances.  The  general  appear 
ance  of  ^ Avidya  is  Akasha— darkness,  and  this  is  why 
Tamas  is  a.  synonym  of  this  word. 

This  general  prevalence  of  darkness  is  caused  by 
some  defect  in  individual  minds,  because,  as  we  find 
from  daily  experience,  a  given  object  does  not  excite 
the  same  set  of  vibrations  in  all  minds.  What,  then, 
is  the  mental  defect?  It  is  to  be  found  in  the  nature 
of  the  stored-up  potential  energy  of  the  mind.  This 
storing  up  of  potential  energy  is  a  problem  of  the 
deepest  importance  in  philosophy,  and  one  in  which 
the  doctrine  of  transmigration  of  souls  finds  its  most 
intelligible  explanation.  This  so-called  law  of  Vasana 
may  be  enunciated  as  follows. 

If  anything  be  set  in  any  particular  kind  of  tattvic 
motion— internal  or  external— it  acquires  the  capa 
bility,  for  a  second  time,  of  being  easily  set  into  the 
same  kind  of  motion  and  of  consequently  resisting  \ 
different  kind.  If  the  thing  be  subjected  to  the  same 
motion  for  some  time,  the  motion  becomes  a  necessary 
attribute  of  the  thing.  That  motion  becomes  then, 
so  to  speak,  <l second  nnture." 


Thus,  if  a  man  accustoms  his  body  to  a  particular 
form  of  exercise,  certain  muscles  in  his  body  are  very 
easily  set  in  motion.  Any  other  form  of  exercise  that 
requires  the  use  of  other  muscles  will  be  found  fatigu 
ing  on  account  of  the  resistance  set  up  by  muscular 
habits.  Similar  is  the  case  with  the  mind.  If  I  have 
a  deep-rooted  conviction,  as  some  have  to  this  day,  that 
the  earth  is  flat  and  that  the  sun  moves  round  it,  it 
may  require  ages  to  alter  my  belief.  A  thousand 
examples  might  be  cited  of  such  phenomena.  It  is, 
however,  only  necessary  in  this  place  to  state  that  the 
capacity  of  turning  easily  to  one  mental  state  and 
offering  resistance  to  another  is  what  I  mean  by  this 
stored-up  energy.  It  is  called  Vasana  or  Sanskara  in 

The  word  Vasana  comes  from  the  root  vas,  "to  dwell." 
It  means  the  dwelling  or  fixing  of  some  form  of  vibra 
tory  motion  in  the  mind.     It  is  by  Vasana  that  certain 
truths  become  native  to  the  mind,  and,  not  only  certain 
so-called  truths,  but  all  the  so-called  natural  tendencies 
—moral,  physical  and  spiritual— become  in  this  way 
native  to  the  mind.     The  only  difference  in  different 
Vasanas  is  in  their  respective  stability.    Those  Vasanas 
which  are  imprinted  upon  the  mind  as  the  result  of  the 
ordinary  evolutionary  course  of  nature  never  change. 
The  products  of  independent  human  actions  are  of 
two  kinds.     If  action  result  in  tendencies  that  check 
the  evolutionary  progressive  tide  of  nature,  the  effect 
of  the  action  exhausts  itself  in  time  by  the  repellent 
force  of  the  under-current  of  evolution.     If,  however, 

THE  MIND.  I01 

the  two  coincide  in  direction,  increased  strength  is  the 
result.  The  latter  kind  of  actions  we  call  virtuous, 
the  former  vicious. 

It  is  this  Vasana,  this  temporary  dominion  of  the 
opposite  current,  that  causes  false  knowledge.    Suppose 
the  positive  current  has  in  any  man  the  strength  a;  if 
it  has  presented  to  it  a  negative  current  of  the  same 
degree  of  strength  the  two  will  try  to  unite.     An  at 
traction  will  then  be  set  up.     If  these  two  currents  are 
not   allowed  to  unite,  they  increase  in  strength,  and 
react  on  the  body  itself  to  its  injury;  if  allowed  to  unite, 
they  exhaust  themselves.     This  exhaustion  causes  a 
relief  to  the  mind,  the  progressive  evolutionary  current 
asserts  itself  with  greater  force,  and  thus  a  feeling  of 
satisfaction  is  the  result.     This  tattvic  disturbance  of 
the  mind  will,  as  long  as  it  has  sufficient  strength, 
give  its  own  colour  to  all  percepts  and  concepts.    They 
will   not  appear  in  their  true  light,  but  as  causes  of 
satisfaction.      These  causes  of  satisfaction  we  call  by 
different  names.      Sometimes  we  call  it  a  flower,  at 
others   we   call    it  a  moon.      Such  are    the  manifes 
tations  of  Avidya.      As   Patanjali  says,  Avidya  con-  i 
sists    in   the  perception  of  the  eternal,  the  pure,  the 
pleasing  and  the  spiritual  in  the  non-eternal,  the  im 
pure,  the  painful,  and  the  non-spiritual.     Such  is  the 
genesis  of  Avidya,  which,  as  has  been  remarked,  is 
a  substantial  reality,  and  not  a  mere   negative   con 

This  mental  phenomenon  causes  the  four  following 


b.  Egoism  (As)iittd). 

Asmita  (egoism)  is  the  conviction  that  real  life 
(Purusha  Svara)  is  one  with  its  various  mental  and 
physiological  modifications,  that  the  higher  self  is  one 
with  the  lower  one,  that  the  sum  of  our  percepts  and 
concepts  is  the  real  Ego,  and  that  there  is  nothing 
beyond.  In  the  present  cycle  of  evolution  and  in  the 
previous  ones,  the  mind  has  chiefly  been  occupied  with 
these  percepts  and  concepts.  The  real  power  of  life 
is  never  seen  making  any  separate  appearance,  hence 
the  feeling  that  the  Ego  must  be  the  same  with  the 
mental  phenomena.  It  is  plain  that  Avidya,  as  defined 
above,  lies  at  the  root  of  this  manifestation. 

c.  Retention  (Rdga). 

The  misleading  feeling  of  satisfaction  above  men 
tioned  under  Avidya  is  the  cause  of  this  condition. 
When  any  object  repeatedly  produces  in  our  mind  this 
feeling  of  satisfaction,  our  mind  engenders  the  habit  of 
falling  again  and  again  into  the  same  state  of  tattvic 
vibration.  The  feeling  of  satisfaction  and  the  picture 
of  the  object  which  seemed  to  cause  that  satisfaction 
tend  to  appear  together,  and  this  is  a  hankering  after 
the  object,  a  desire  not  to  let  it  escape  us — that  is  to 
say,  Raga  (pleasure). 

We  may  here  investigate  more  thoroughly  the 
nature  of  this  feeling  of  satisfaction  and  its  opposite- 
pleasure  and  pain.  The  Sanskrit  words  for  these  two 
mental  states  are  respectively  Sukha  and  Duhkha. 
Both  come  from  the  root  khan,  "to  dig";  the  prefixes 


us  and  dull  make  the  difference.  The  former  prefix 
conveys  the  idea  of  "ease,"  and  it  derives  this  idea 
from  the  unrestrained  easy  flow  of  breath.  The  radical 
idea  of  Sukha  is,  therefore,  unrestrained  digging— 
diggi"£  where  the  soil  offers  but  little  resistance. 
Transferred  to  the  mind,  that  act  becomes  Sukha,  that 
which  makes  upon  it  an  easy  impression.  The  act 
must,  in  the  nature  of  its  vibrations,  coincide  with  the 
then  prevail  fug  conditions  of  the  mental  vibrations. 
Before  any  percepts  or  concepts  had  taken  root  in  the 
mind,  there  was  no  desire,  no  pleasure.  The  genesis 
both  of  desire  and  what  is  called  pleasure—  that  is,  the 
sense  of  satisfaction  caused  by  the  impressions  pro 
duced  by  external  objects—  begins  with  certain  percepts 
and  concepts,  taking  root  in  the  mind.  This  taking 
root  is  really  only  an  overclouding  of  the  original  set 
of  impressions  arising  out  of  evolutionary  mental  pro 
gress.  When  contact  with  the  external  object  for  a 
moment  removes  that  cloud  from  the  clear  horizon  of 
the  mind,  the  soul  is  conscious  of  a  feeling  of  satis 
faction,  which,  as  I  have  shown,  Aviclya  connects  with 
the  external  object.  This,  as  shown  above,  gives  birth 
to  desire. 

d.  Repulsion  (Dvcsha). 

Similar  is  the  genesis  of  pain  and  the  desire  to 
repel  (Dvesha).  The  radical  idea  of  Duhkha  (pain) 
is  the  act  of  digging  where  a  good  deal  of  resistance 
is  experienced.  Transferred  to  the  mind,  it  signifies 
an  act  which  encounters  resistance  from  the  mind. 


The  mind  does  not  easily  give  place  to  these  vibra 
tions  ;  it  tries  to  repel  them  with  all  its  might.  Thence 
arises  a  feeling  of  privation.  It  is  as  if  something  of 
its  nature  were  being  taken  away,  and  an  alien  pheno 
menon  introduced.  This  consciousness  of  privation, 
or  want,  is  pain,  and  the  repulsive  power  which  these 
alien  vibrations  excite  in  the  mind  is  known  by  the 
name  of  Dvesha  (desire  to  repel).  The  word  Dvesha 
comes  from  the  root  dvcsli,  which  is  a  compound  of 
du  and  tsh;  tsh  itself  appears  to  be  a  compound  root, 
/  and  5.  The  final  s  is  Connected  with  the  root  su, 
"to  breathe,"  "to  be  in  one's  natural  state."  The  root 
i  means  "to  go,"  and  the  root  ish,  therefore,  means 
"to  go  towards  one's  natural  state."  Transferred  to 
the  mind,  the  word  becomes  a  synonym  of  Raga. 
The  root  du  in  Dvesha  performs  the  same  function  as 
duh  in  Duhkha.  Hence  Dvesha  comes  to  mean  a 
"  hankering  after  repulsion."  Anger,  jealousy,  hatred, 
etc.,  are  all  modifications  of  this,  as  love,  affection, 
and  friendship  are  those  of  Raga.  It  is  easy,  by  what 
has  been  said  above,  to  follow  up  the  genesis  of  the 
principle  of  "tenacity  of  life."  I  must  now  try  to 
assign  these  actions  to  their  prevailing  Tattvas. 

The  general  colour  of  Avidya  is,  as  already  said, 
that  of  Akasha,  darkness.  When,  however,  Avidya 
is  manifested  as  anger,  the  Agni  Tattva  prevails.  If 
this  be  accompanied  by  motion  of  the  body  Va}'U  is 
indicated.  Stubbornness  shows  as  Prithivi  and  tracta- 
bility  as  Apas,  while  the  condition  of  fear  and  trem 
bling  finds  expression  in  Akasha. 

THE    MIND.  105 

The  Akasha  Tattva  prevails  also  in  love.  Prithivi 
makes  it  abiding,  Vayu  changeable,  Agni  fretting, 
Apas  lukewarm,  Akasha  blind  and  unreasoning. 

Akasha  tends  to  produce  a  hollow  in  the  veins 
themselves,  hence  its  prevalence  in  fear.  Prithivi 
roots  the  timid  man  to  the  spot,  Vayu  lends  him 
craven  wings,  Apas  opens  his  ears  to  flattery,  and 
Agni  heats  the  blood  for  revenge. 


I  turn  now  to  Vikalpa.  This  is  that  knowledge 
which,  though  capable  of  being  embodied  in  words, 
has  no  reality  on  the  physical  plane.  The  sounds  of 
nature  connected  with  its  sight  have  given  us  names 
for  percepts.  With  the  additions  or  subtractions  of 
the  percepts  we  have  also  had  additions  and  subtrac 
tions  of  the  sounds  connected  therewith.  The  sounds 
constitute  our  words. 

In  Vikalpa  two  or  more  percepts  are  added  together 
in  such  a  way  as  to  give  birth  to  a  concept  having  no 
corresponding  reality  on  the  physical  plane.  This  is 
a  necessary  result  of  the  universal  law  of  Vasana. 
When  the  mind  is  habituated  to  the  perception  of 
more  phenomena  than  one,  all  of  them  have  a  tendency 
lo  appear  again;  and  whenever  two  or  more  such 
phenomena  coincide  in  time,  we  have  in  our  mind  a 
picture  of  a  third  something.  That  something  may 
or  may  not  exist  in  the  physical  plane.  If  it  does 
not,  the  phenomenon  is  Vikalpa.  If,  however,  it  does, 
we  call  it  Samadhi. 


4.  SLEEP  (NIDRA). 

This  also  is  a  phenomenon  of  the  Manomaya  Kosha 
(mind).  Indian  philosophers  speak  of  three  states  in 
this  connection — Waking,  Dream,  Sleep. 

a.    Waking. 

Tli is  is  the  ordinary  state  when  the  principle  of  life 
works  in  connection  with  the  mind.  The  mind,  then, 
through  the  action  of  the  senses,  receives  impressions 
of  the  external  objects.  The  other  faculties  of  the 
mind  are  purely  mental,  and  they  may  work  in  the 
waking  as  in  the  dreaming  state.  The  only  difference 
is  that  in  dreams  the  mind  does  not  undergo  the  per 
ceptive  changes.  How  is  this?  These  changes  of 
state  are  always  passive,  and  the  soul  has  no  choice 
in  being  subjected  to  them.  They  come  and  go  as  a 
necessary  result  of  the  working  of  Svara  in  all  its  five 
modifications.  As  has  been  explained  in  the  article 
on  Prana,  the  different  sensuous  organs  cease  to  re 
spond  to  external  tattvic  changes  when  the  positive 
current  gains  more  than  ordinary  strength  in  the  body. 
The  positive  force  appears  to  us  in  the  shape  of  heat, 
the  negative  in  the  shape  of  cold.  I  may,  therefore, 
in  future  term  these  forces  heat  and  cold. 

b.  Dream. 

The  Upanishad  says  that  in  dreamless  sleep  the 
soul  sleeps  in  the  blood-vessels  (Nadis),  the  peri 
cardium  (Puritat)  and  the  hollow  of  the  heart.  Has 
the  system  of  blood-vessels — the  negative  centre  of 
Prana,  anything  to  do  with  dream  also?  The  state  of 

THE    MIND.  IO7 

dream,  according  to  the  Indian  sage,  is  an  intermediate 
one  between  waking  and  sleeping,  and  it  is  but  reason 
able  to  suppose  that  there  must  be  something  in  this 
system  which  accounts  for  both  these  phenomena. 
What  is  that  something?  It  is  variously  spoken  of  as 
the  Pitta,  the  Agni,  and  the  Sun.  It  is  needless  to 
say  that  these  words  are  meant  to  denote  one  and  the 
same  thing.  It  is  the  effect  produced  on  the  body  by 
the  solar  breath  in  general,  and  the  Agni  Tattva  in 
particular.  The  word  Pitta  may  mislead  many,  and 
it  is,  therefore,  necessary  to  state  that  the  word  does 
not  always  mean  "lull."  There  is  one  Pitta  which 
Sanskrit  physiology  locates  specially  in  the  heart. 
This  is  called  the  Sadhaka  Pitta.  It  is  nothing  more 
nor  less  than  cardiac  temperature,  and  it  is  with  this 
that  we  have  to  do  in  sleep  or  dream. 

According  to  the  Indian  philosopher,  it  is  the  car 
diac  temperature  that  causes  the  three  states  in  vary 
ing  degrees.  This,  and  nothing  more,  is  the  meaning 
of  the  Vedic  text,  which  says  that  the  soul  sleeps  in 
the  pericardium,  etc.  All  the  functions  of  life  are 
carried  on  properly  as  long  as  we  have  a  perfect 
balance  of  the  positive  and  negative  currents — heat 
and  cold.  The  mean  of  the  solar  and  lunar  tempera 
tures  is  the  temperature  at  which  the  Prana  keeps  up 
its  connection  with  the  gross  body.  The  mean  is 
struck  after  an  exposure  of  a  whole  day  and  night. 
Within  this  period  the  temperature  is  subjected  to 
two  general  variations.  The  one  is  the  extreme  of 
the  positive;  the  other  the  extreme  of  the  negative. 


When  the  positive  reaches  its  daily  extreme  the  ac 
tions  of  the  sense  organs  are  no  longer  synchronous 
with  the  modification  of  the  external  Tattvas. 

It  is  a  matter  of  daily  experience  that  the  sensuous 
organs  respond  to  external  tattvic  vibrations  within 
certain  limits.  If  the  limit  is  exceeded  either  way, 
the  organs  become  insensible  to  these  vibrations. 
There  is,  therefore,  a  certain  degree  of  temperature 
at  which  the  sensuous  organs  can  ordinarily  work, 
but  when  this  limit  is  exceeded  either  way  the  organs 
become  incapable  of  receiving  any  impression  from 
without.  During  day  the  positive  life  current  gathers 
strength  in  the  heart.  The  ordinary  physical  mood  is 
naturally  altered  by  this  gathering  up  of  the  force, 
and,  as  a  result,  the  senses  sleep.  They  receive  no 
impression  from  without.  This  is  sufficient  to  pro 
duce  the  dreaming  state.  As  yet  the  chords  of  the 
gross  body  (Sthula  Sharira)  have  alone  slackened;  the 
soul  sees  the  mind  no  longer  affected  by  external 
impressions.  The  mind  is,  however,  habituated  to 
various  percepts  and  concepts,  and  by  the  mere  force 
of  habit  passes  into  various  states.  The  breath,  as  it 
differentiates  into  the  five  tattvic  states,  becomes  the 
cause  of  the  varying  impressions  coming  up.  The 
soul,  as  already  said,  plays  no  part  in  calling  up  these 
visions.  It  is  by  the  working  of  a  necessary  law  of 
life  that  the  mind  undergoes  the  various  changes  of 
the  waking  and  the  sleeping  states.  The  soul  does 
nothing  in  conjuring  up  the  phantasms  of  a  dream, 
otherwise  it  would  be  impossible  to  explain  horrible 

THE    MIND.  109 

dreams.  Why,  indeed,  if  the  soul  is  entirely  free  in 
dreaming,  docs  it  sometimes  call  into  existence  the 
hideous  appearances  which,  with  one  terrible  shock, 
seem  to  send  our  very  blood  back  to  our  heart?  No 
soul  would  ever  act  thus  if  it  could  help  it. 

The  fact  is  that  the  impressions  of  a  dream  change 
with  the  Tattvas.  As  one  Tattva  easily  glides  into 
another,  one  thought  gives  place  to  another.  The 
A  kasha  causes  fear,  shame,  desire,  anger;  the  Vayu 
takes  us  to  different  places,  the  Tejas  shows  us  gold 
and  silver,  the  Prithivi  may  bring  us  enjoyment, 
smiles,  dalliance,  and  so  on.  And  then  we  may 
have  composite  tattvic  vibrations.  We  may  see 
men  and  women,  dances  and  battles,  councils  and 
popular  gatherings;  we  may  walk  in  gardens,  smell 
the  choicest  flowers,  see  the  most  beautiful  spots;  we 
may  shake  hands  with  our  friends,  we  may  deliver 
speeches,  or  travel  into  distant  lands.  All  these  im 
pressions  are  caused  by  the  tattvic  state  of  the  mental 
coil,  brought  about  either  by  (i)  physical  derange 
ment,  (2)  ordinary  tattvic  changes,  or  (3)  some  other 
natural  change  of  state. 

As  there  are  three  different  causes,  there  are  three 
different  kinds  of  dreams.  The  first  cause  is  physical 
derangement.  When  the  natural  currents  of  Prana 
are  disturbed  so  that  disease  results,  or  are  about  to  be 
so  disturbed,  the  mind  in  the  ordinary  way  undergoes 
these  tattvic  changes.  The  sympathetic  chords  of  the 
mind  are  excited,  and  we  dream  of  all  the  disagreeable 
accompaniments  of  whatever  disease  may  be  in  store  for 


us  within  our  physical  atmosphere.  Such  dreams  are 
akin  in  their  nature  to  the  ravings  of  delirium;  the 
only  difference  lying  in  strength  and  violence.  When 
ill,  we  may  in  a  similar  way  dream  of  health  and  its 

The  second  kind  of  dream  is  caused  by  ordinary 
tattvic  changes.  When  the  past,  the  present,  and  the 
future  tattvic  conditions  of  our  surroundings  are  uni 
form  in  their  nature,  when  there  is  no  change,  and  when 
no  change  is  in  store  for  us,  the  stream  of  dreams  is  most 
calm  and  equable  in  its  easy  flow.  As  the  atmospheric 
and  the  healthful  physiological  Tattvas  glide  smoothly 
one  into  the  other,  so  do  the  impressions  of  our  minds 
in  this  class  of  dreams.  Ordinarily  we  cannot  even 
remember  these  dreams,  for  in  them  there  is  nothing 
of  special  excitement  to  keep  them  in  our  memory. 

The  third  kind  of  change  is  similar  to  the  first,  the 
difference  lying  only  in  the  nature  of  the  effects.  These 
we  call  the  effects  of  disease  or  health,  as  the  case  may 
be;  here  we  might  group  the  results  under  the  general 
names  of  prosperity  or  calamity. 

The  process  of  this  sort  of  mental  excitement  is, 
however,  the  same  in  both.  The  currents  of  life  preg 
nant  with  all  sorts  of  good  and  evil,  are  sufficient  in 
strength,  while  yet  potential  and  only  tending  towards 
the  actual,  to  set  the  sympathetic  chords  of  the  mind  in 
vibration.  The  purer  the  mind,  and  the  freer  from  dust 
of  the  world,  the  more  sensitive  is  it  to  the  slightest 
and  remotest  tendency  of  Prana  towards  some  change. 
We  consequently  become  conscious  of  coining  events 


in  dreams.      This  explains  the  nature  of  prophetic 
dreams.    To  weigh,  however,  the  force  of  these  dreams, 
U>  find  out  exactly  what  each  dream  means,  is  a  most 
difficult,  and,  under  ordinary  circumstances,  I  may  say, 
a  quite  impossible  task.     We  may  make  ten  thousand 
mistakes  at  every  step,  and  we  need  nothing  less  than 
a  perfect  Yogi  for  the  right  understanding  of  even  our 
own  dreams,  to  say  nothing  of  those  of  others.     Let 
us  explain  and  illustrate  the  difficulties  which  surround 
us  in  the  right  understanding  of  our  dreams.     A  man 
in  the  same  quarter  of  the  city  in  which  I  live,  but 
unknown  to  me,  is  about  to  die.     Pregnant  with  death, 
the  tattvic  currents  of  his  body  disturb  the  atmospheric 
Tattvas,  and  are  through  their  instrumentality  spread 
in   various   degrees  of  strength   all   over   the  world. 
They  reach  me  too,  and  when  I  am  sleeping  excite  the 
sympathetic  chords  of  the  mind.     Now  as  there  is  no 
special  room  in  my  mind  for  that  man,  my  impression 
will  only  be  general.     A  human  being,  fair  or  ugly, 
thin    or   fat,   male  or   female,   lamented  or   not,  and 
having  other  like  qualities,  will  come  into  the  mind 
as  on  his  death-bed.     But  what  man?     The  power  of 
complex  imagination,  unless  kept  in  check  by  the  most 
rigorous  exercise  of  Yoga,  will  have  its  play,  and  it  is 
almost  certain  that  a  man  who  has  previously  been 
connected  in  my  mind  with  all  these  tattvic  qualities, 
will  make  his  appearance  in  my  consciousness.     It  is 
evident  I  shall  be  on  the  wrong  track.     That  someone 
is  dead  or  dying,  we  may  be  sure,  but  who  or  where 
it  is  impossible  for  ordinary  men  to  discover.     And  not 


only  does  the  manifestation  of  Vikalpa  put  us  on  the 
wrong  track,  all  the  manifestations  of  the  mind  do 
that.  The  state  of  Samadhi,  which  is  nothing  more 
than  putting  one's  self  into  a  state  of  the  most  perfect 
amenability  to  tattvic  surroundings,  is  therefore  im 
possible  unless  all  the  other  manifestations  are  held 
in  perfect  check.  "Yoga,"  says  Patanjali,  "is  keeping 
in  check  the  manifestations  of  the  mind."  But  to 

c.  Deep  Sleep  (Snshnpti). 

The  dreaming  state  is  maintained  as  long  as  the 
cardiac  temperature  is  not  strong  enough  to  affect  the 
mental  coil.  But  with  increasing  positive  strength  that 
too  must  be  affected.  The  Manas  and  the  Prana  are 
made  of  the  same  materials  and  are  subject  to  the  same 
laws.  The  more  subtle,  however,  these  materials  are, 
the  stronger  must  be  the  forces  that  produce  similar 
changes.  All  the  coils  are  tuned  together,  and  changes 
in  the  one  affect  the  other.  The  vibrations  per  second 
of  the  first  one  are,  however,  greater  in  number  than 
those  of  the  lower  one,  and  this  causes  its  subtlety. 
The  higher  are  always  affected  through  the  imme 
diately  lower  principles.  Thus  the  external  Tattvas 
will  affect  Prina  directly,  but  the  mind  can  only  be 
affected  through  the  Prana  and  indirectly.  The  cardiac 
temperature  is  only  an  indication  of  the  degree  of  heat 
in  Prana.  When  sufficient  is  gathered  up  there,  the 
Prana  having  acquired  sufficient  strength,  affects  the 
mental  coil.  That  too  now  passes  out  of  tune  with 

THE    MIND.  IT, 

the  soul.  Moreover,  the  mental  vibrations  are  at  rest, 
for  the  mind  can  only  work  at  a  certain  temperature, 
beyond  which  it  must  go  to  rest.  In  this  state  we 
have  no  more  dreams.  The  only  manifestation  of  the 
mind  is  that  of  rest.  This  is  the  state  of  dreamless 

I  pass  on  now  to  the  fifth  and  last  mental  manifesta 


As  Professor  Max  Miiller  has  remarked,  the  original 
idea  of  the  root  sinri  (from  which  Smriti)  is  "to  make 
soft,  to  melt."  The  process  of  making  soft  or  melting 
consists  in  the  melting  thing  assuming  a  consistency 
nearer  and  nearer  to  the  tattvic  consistency  of  the 
melting  force.  All  change  of  state  is  equivalent  to 
the  assumption  by  the  thing  changing  Of  the  state  of 
Tattva  which  causes  the  change.  Hence  the  secondary 
idea  of  the  root,  "to  love."  Love  is  that  state  of  the 
mind  in  which  it  melts  into  the  state  of  the  object  of 
love.  This  change  is  analogous  to  the  chemical  change 
that  gives  us  a  photograph  on  a  sensitive  plate.  As  in 
this  phenomenon  the  materials  on  the  sensitive  plate 
are  melted  into  the  state  of  the  reflected  light,  so  the 
sensitive  plate  of  the  mind  melts  into  the  state  of  its 
percepts.  The  impression  upon  the  mind  is  deeper, 
the  greater  the  force  of  the  imprinting  rays  and  the 
greater  the  sympathy  between  the  mind  and  the  object 
perceived.  This  sympathy  is  created  by  stored-up 
potential  energy,  and  the  perceptive  rays  themselves  act 


with  greater  force  when  the  mind  is  in  a  sympathetic 

Every  percept  takes  root  in  the  mind,  as  explained 
above.  It  is  nothing  more  than  a  change  of  the  tattvic 
state  of  the  mind,  and  what  is  left  behind  is  only  a 
capacity  for  falling  into  the  same  state  more  easily 
again.  The  mind  falls  back  into  the  same  state  when  it 
is  under  the  influence  of  the  same  tattvic  surroundings. 
The  presence  of  the  same  things  calls  back  the  same 
mental  state. 

The  tattvic  surroundings  may  be  of  two  descriptions 
— astral  and  local.  The  astral  influence  is  the  effect 
upon  the  individual  Prana  of  the  then  condition  of  the 
terrestrial  Prana.  If  this  effect  appears  as  the  Agni 
Tattva,  those  of  our  concepts  which  have  a  prominent 
connection  with  this  Tattva  will  make  their  appearance 
in  the  mind.  Some  of  these  are  a  hankering  after 
wealth,  a  desire  of  progeny,  etc.  If  we  have  the  Vayu 
Tattva,  a  desire  to  travel  may  take  possession  of  our 
minds,  and  so  on.  A  minute  tattvic  analysis  of  all  our 
concepts  is  of  the  greatest  interest;  suffice  it,  however, 
to  say  here  that  the  tattvic  condition  of  Prana  often 
calls  up  into  the  mind  objects  which  have  been  in 
similar  previous  conditions  the  objects  of  perception. 
It  is  this  power,  as  already  shown,  that  underlies  dreams 
of  one  class.  In  the  waking  state,  too,  this  phase  of 
memory  often  acts  as  reminiscence. 

Local  surroundings  are  constituted  by  those  objects 
which  the  mind  has  been  accustomed  to  perceive 
together  with  the  immediate  object  of  memory.  This 

THK    MIXD.  Trc 

is  the  power  of  association.      Both  these  phenomena 
constitute  memory  proper  (»Smrilh.     Here  the  object 
conit-s  first  into  the  mind,  and  afterwards  the  act  and 
the  surroundings  of  perception.     Another  very  impor 
tant  kind  of  memory  is  what  is  called  Buddhi,  literary 
memory.     This  is  the  power  by  which  we  call  to  mind 
what  we  have  learnt  of  scientific  facts.     The  process 
of  storing  up  these  facts  in  the  mind  is  the  same,  but 
the  coming  back  into  consciousness  differs  in  this,  that 
here  the  act  comes  into  the  mind  first  and  then  the 
object.     All  the  five  Tattvas  and  the  foregoing-  mental 
phenomena  may  cause  the  phenomenon  of  memory. 
Literary  memory  has  a  good  deal  to  do  with  Yoga,  i.e., 
the  exercise  of  free  will  to  direct  the  energies  of  the 
mind  into  desirable  channels.    While  those  impressions 
which  take  root   in  the  mind   on  account  of  natural 
surroundings  make  the  mind  the  unwilling  slave  of 
the  external  world,   Buddhi  may  lead  it  to  bliss  and 
freedom.     But  will  these  tattvic  surroundings  always 
bring   related    phenomena    into  consciousness?      No; 
this   depends   upon   their  correlative   strength.      It   is 
\yell    known  that  when  the  vibrations  per  second  of 
Akasha  (sound)  pass  beyond  a  certain  limit  either  way, 
they  do  not  affect  the  tympanum.     Similar  is  the  case 
with   the  other  Tattvas.      It   is,  for  example,  only  a 
certain  number  of  vibrations  per  second  of  the  Tejas 
Tattva  which   affects  the  eye,  and   similarly,  mutatis 
mutandis,  with   the  other  senses.      The  same   is  the 
case  with  the  mind.     It  is  only  when  the  mental  and 
external  tattvic  tensions  are  equal  that  the  mind  begins 


to  vibrate  as  it  comes  into  contact  witli  the  external 
world.  Just  as  the  varying  states  of  the  external 
organs  make  us  more  or  less  sensitive  to  ordinary 
sensation,  so  different  men  might  not  hear  the  same 
sounds,  might  not  see  the  same  sights,  the  mental 
Tattvas  might  not  be  affected  by  percepts  of  different 
strength,  or  might  be  affected  in  different  degrees  by- 
percepts  of  the  same  strength.  The  question  is,  how  is 
the  variation  of  this  mental  tattvic  strength  produced? 
By  exercise,  and  the  absence  of  exercise.  If  we  accus 
tom  the  mind,  just  as  we  do  the  body,  to  any  particular 
percept  or  concept,  the  mind  turns  easily  to  those 
percepts  and  concepts.  If,  however,  we  give  up  the 
exercise,  the  mind  becomes  stiff  and  ceases  by  degrees 
to  respond  to  those  percepts  and  concepts.  This  is 
the  phenomenon  of  forgetting.  Let  a  student  whose 
literary  exercise  is  just  opening  the  buds  of  his  mind, 
which  is  just  gaining  strength  enough  to  see  into  the 
causes  and  effects  of  things,  give  up  his  exercise.  His 
mind  will  begin  to  lose  that  nice  perception.  The 
stiffer  the  mind  becomes  the  less  will  the  causal  rela 
tion  affect  him,  and  the  less  he  will  know  of  it,  until 
at  last  he  loses  all  his  power. 

Ceaseless  influence  and  activity  of  one  sort  being 
impossible  in  the  ordinary  course  of  nature,  every 
impression  tends  to  pass  away  as  soon  as  it  is  made. 
Its  degree  of  stability  depends  upon  the  duration  of 
the  exercise. 

But  although  activity  of  one  sort  is  impracticable, 
activity  of  some  sort  is  always  present  in  the  mind. 

THE    MINI). 

With  every  action  the  colour  of  the  mind  changes, 
and  one  colour  may  take  so  deep  a  root  in  the  mind  as 
to  remain  there  for  ages  upon  ages,  to  say  nothing  of 
minutes,  hours,  days,  and  years.  Just  as  time  takes 
ages  to  demolish  the  impressions  of  the  physical  plane, 
just  as  marks  of  incision  upon  the  skin  may  not  pass 
away  in  even  two  decades,  so  also  it  takes  ages  to 
demolish  the  impressions  of  the  mind.  Hundreds  and 
thousands  of  years  might  thus  be  spent  in  Devachan 
in  order  to  wear  away  those  antagonistic  impressions 
which  the  mind  has  contracted  in  earthly  life.  By 
antagonistic  impressions,  I  mean  those  impressions 
which  are  not  compatible  with  the  state  of  Moksha, 
and  have  about  them  a  tinge  of  earthly  life. 

With  every  moment  the  mind  changes  its  colour, 
whether  by  increase  or  by  diminution  of  vibration. 
These  changes  are  temporary.  But  there  is  at  the 
same  time  a  permanent  change  going  on  in  the  colour 
of  the  mind.  With  every  little  act  of  our  worldly 
experience,  the  evolutionary  tide  of  progress  is  gaining 
strength,  and  passing  into  variety.  The  colour  is  con 
stantly  changing.  But  the  same  general  colour  is 
maintained  under  ordinary  circumstances,  during  one 
earthly  life.  Under  extraordinary  circumstances  we 
may  have  men  having  two  memories.  Under  such 
circumstances,  as  in  the  case  of  approaching  death,  the 
accumulated  forces  of  a  whole  life  combine  into  a 
different  colour.  The  tension,  so  to  speak,  becomes 
different  from  what  it  was  before.  Nothing  can  put 
the  mind  into  the  same  state  again.  This  general 


colour  of  the  mind  differing  from  that  of  other  minds, 
and  yet  retaining  its  general  character  for  a  whole  life, 
gives  us  the  consciousness  of  personal  identity.  In 
every  act  which  has  been  done,  or  which  is,  or  may 
be  done,  the  soul  sees  the  same  general  colour,  and 
hence  the  feeling  of  personal  identity.  In  death  the 
general  colour  changes,  and  although  we  have  the 
same  mind,  we  have  a  different  consciousness.  Hence 
no  continuance  of  the  feeling  of  personal  identity  is 
possible  through  death. 

Such  is  a  brief  account  of  the  Manomaya  Kosha, 
the  mental  coil  in  the  ordinary  state.  The  influence 
of  the  higher  principle  (the  Vijnanamaya  Kosha) 
through  the  exercise  of  Yoga  induces  in  the  mind  a 
number  of  other  manifestations.  Psychic  manifesta 
tions  show  themselves  in  the  mind  and  the  Prana,  in 
the  same  way  as  mental  manifestations  are  seen  in 
fluencing  and  regulating  the  latter. 

The  universe,  as  has  been  seen,  has  five  planes  of 
existence  (which  may  also  be  divided  into  seven). 
The  forms  of  the  earth,  which  are  little  pictures  of 
the  universe,  have  also  the  same  five  planes.  In 
some  of  these  organisms  the  higher  planes  of  exist 
ence  are  absolutely  latent.  In  man,  in  the  present 
age,  the  Vijnauamaya  Kosha  and  the  lower  principles 
make  their  appearance. 

We  have  now  had  an  insight  into  the  nature  of  the 
macrocosmic  Prana,  and  we  have  seen  also  that  almost 
every  point  in  this  ocean  of  life  represents  a  separate 
individual  organism. 

THK    MIND.  119 

Similar  is  the  case  with  the  maciocosmic  mind. 
Every  Truti  of  that  centre  in  the  same  way  takes  in  the 
whole  of  the  macrocosmic  mind.  From  every  point 
the  tattvic  rays  of  the  mental  ocean  go  to  every  point, 
and  thus  every  point  is  a  little  picture  of  the  universal 
mind.  This  is  the  individual  mind. 

The  universal  mind  is  the  original  of  all  the  centres 
of  Prana,  in  the  same  way  as  the  solar  Prana  is  the 
original  of  the  species  of  earth-life.  Individual  mind, 
too,  is  similarly  the  original  of  all  the  individual  mani 
festations  of  the  Pranamaya  Kosha.  Similarly  the 
soul,  and  on  the  highest  plane,  the  individual  spirit, 
is  the  perfect  picture  of  all  that  comes  below. 

With  the  four  higher  planes  of  life  there  are  four 
different  states  of  consciousness,  the  waking,  the 
dreaming,  the  sleeping  and  the  Turiya. 

With  these  remarks  the  following  extract  from  the 
Prashnopanishad  will  be  intelligible  and  instructive. 

"Now  Sauryayana  Gargya  asked  him,  'Sir,  in  this 
body,  what  sleeps,  and  what  remains  awakened? 
Which  of  these  luminous  beings  sees  dreams?  Who 
has  this  rest?  In  whom  do  all  these  [manifestations] 
rest  in  the  potential  unmanifested  state?1 

"lie  answered  him,  '()  Gargya,  as  the  rays  of  the 
setting  sun  are  all  collected  in  the  luminous  sheath,  and 
then  again  go  out,  as  he  rises  again  and  again,  so  all 
that  is  collected  in  the  luminous  sheath  of  mind 
beyond.  For  this  reason  then,  the  man  does  not  hear, 
does  not  see,  does  not  smell,  does  not  taste,  does  not 
touch,  .  .  .  does  not  take,  does  not  cohabit,  does 


not  excrete,  does  not  go.  They  say  that  he  sleeps. 
The  fires  of  the  Prana  alone  remain  awakened  in  this 
body.  The  Apana  is  the  Garhapatya  fire;  the  Vyana 
is  the  right  hand  fire.  The  Prana  is  the  Ahavaniya 
fire,  which  is  made  by  the  Garhapatya.  That  which 
carries  equally  everywhere  the  oblations  of  food  and 
air,  is  the  Samana.  The  mind  (Manas)  is  the  sacri- 
ficer  (Vajamana).  The  Udana  is  the  fruit  of  the  sacri 
fice.  He  carries  the  sacrificer  every  day  to  Brahma. 
Here  this  luminous  being  [the  mind]  enjoys  great 
things  in  dreams.  Whatever  was  seen,  he  sees  again 
as  if  it  were  real;  whatever  was  heard,  he  hears 
as  if  it  were  real;  whatever  was  experienced  in  dif 
ferent  countries,  in  different  directions,  he  experiences 
the  same  again  and  again — the  seen  or  the  unseen, 
the  heard  or  the  unheard,  thought  or  not  thought 
upon.  He  sees  all,  appearing  as  the  self  of  all  mani 

"'When  he  is  overpowered  by  the  Tejas,  then  this 
luminous  being  sees  no  dreams  in  this  state;  then  there 
appears  in  the  body  this  rest  [the  dreamless  sleep]. 

'"In  this  state,  my  dear  pupil,  all  [that  is  enume 
rated  below],  stays  in  the  ulterior  Atma,  like  birds  that 
resort  to  a  tree  for  habitation — the  Prithivi  composite* 
and  the  Prithivi  non-composite;  the  Apas  composite 
and  the  Apas  non-composite;  the  Tejas  composite  and 
the  Tejas  non-composite;  the  Vayu  composite  and  the 

*  By  composite  I  mean  that  Tattva  which  has  come  into  exist 
ence  after  the  division  into  five,  noticed  in  the  first  essay.  The 
non-composite  means  a  Tattva  before  the  division  into  five. 



Vayu  non-composite;  the  Akasha  composite  and  the 
.A kasha  non-composite;  the  sight  and  the  visible,  the 
hearing  and   the  audible,   the  smell  and  that  which 
may  be  smelt,  the  taste  and  that  which  may  be  tasted, 
the  touch  and  the  tangible,  the  speech  and  the  utter- 
able,  the  hands  and   whatever  may  be   grasped,  the 
generative    organ    and    the    enjoyable,    the   excretive 
organ   and  the  excrements,  the   feet  and   that  which 
may  be  gone  over,  the  faculty  and  the  object  of  doubt, 
the  faculty  and  the  object  of  ascertainment,  the  faculty 
and  the  object  of  egoism,  the  faculty  and  the  object  of 
memory,  the  light  and  that  which  may  be  enlightened, 
the  Prana  and  that  which  it  keeps  together. 

'The  soul  is  the  Vijnana  Atma,  the  seer,  the 
toucher,  the  hearer,  the  smeller,  the  taster,  the  doubter, 
ihe  ascertainer,  the  agent.  This  soul  [the  Vijnana 
Atma]  stays  in  the  ulterior,  unchangeable  Atma  [the 

"So  there  are  four  Atmas— the  life,  the  mind,  the 
soul,  the  spirit.  The  ultimate  force  which  lies  at  the 
root  of  macrocosmic  power  of  the  manifestations  of 
soul,  mind,  and  the  life-principle,  is  the  spirit.'" 

The  principal  interest  of  this  quotation  lies  in  pre 
senting  in  authoritative  fashion  the  views  which  have- 
already  been  propounded.  The  next  essay  touches 
upon  some  important  truths  and  explains  one  of  the 
most  important  functions  of  the  macrocosmic  power 
and  mind,  viz.,  that  of  recording  human  actions. 


WE  are  directed  by  our  Guru  in  the  philosophy  of 
the  Tattvas  to  look  into  vacant  space  toward  the  sky, 
when  the  horizon  is  perfectly  clear,  and  fix  the  atten 
tion  there  with  the  utmost  possible  strength. 

We  are  told  that  after  sufficient  practice  we  shall 
see  there  a  variety  of  pictures — the  most  beautiful 
landscapes,  the  most  gorgeous  palaces  of  the  world, 
and  men,  women  and  children  in  all  the  varying 
aspects  of  life.  How  is  such  a  thing  possible?  What 
do  we  learn  by  this  practical  lesson  in  the  science  of 
attention  ? 

I  think  I  have  described  in  the  essays  with  sufficient 
explicitness  the  ocean  of  Prana  with  the  sun  for  its 
centre,  and  have  given  a  hint  sufficiently  suggestive 
of  the  nature  of  the  macrocosmic  mental  and  psychic 
atmospheres.  It  is  of  the  essential  nature  of  these 
atmospheres  that  every  point  therein  forms  a  centre  of 
action  and  reaction  for  the  whole  ocean.  From  what 
has  been  said  already,  it  will  be  plain  that  each  of 
these  atmospheres  has  a  limit  of  its  own.  The  terres 
trial  atmosphere  extends  only  to  a  few  miles,  and  the 
external  boundary  line  of  this  sphere  must,  it  will 


be  readily  understood,  give  it  the  appearance  of  an 
orange,  just  like  that  of  the  earth.     The  case  is  the 
same   with    the  solar    Prana,   and    the    higher   atmo 
spheres.     To  begin  with  the  terrestrial  Prana,  which 
has  the  measured  limits  of  our  atmosphere,  every  little 
atom  of  our  earth,  and  of  the  most  perfect  organism, 
as  well  as  the  most  imperfect,  makes  a  centre  of  action 
and    reaction    for   the    tattvic   currents   of    terrestrial 
Prana.     The  Prana  has  the  capability  of  being  thrown 
into  the  shape  of  every  organism,  or,  to  use  a  different 
expression,  the  rays  of  Prana,  as  they  fall  upon  every 
organism  are  returned  from  that  organism  according  to 
the  well-known  laws  of  reflection.     These  rays,  as  is 
again  well  known,  carry  within  themselves  the  pictures 
of  the  objects  upon  which  they  may  have  fallen.    Bear 
ing  these  within  them,  they  go  up  to  the  limit  of  the 
terrestrial  Prana  noted  above.     It  will  be  easy  to  con 
ceive  that   within   the   imaginary  sphere  which  sur 
rounds  our  terrestrial  Prana,  we  have  now  a  magnified 
picture  of  our  central  organism.     Not  one  organism 
only,  but  all  the  smallest  points;  the  most  imperfect 
beginnings  of  organized  life,  as  well  as  the  most  per 
fect   organisms— all    are   pictured    in    this   imaginary 
sphere.     It  is  a  magnificent  picture-gallery,  all  that  is 
seen  or  heard,  touched,  tasted,  or  smelt  on  the  face  of 
this  earth  has  a  glorious  and  magnified  picture  there. 
At    the   limit   of   this   terrestrial    Prana,    the    picture- 
forming  tattvic  rays  exercise  a  double  function. 

First  they  throw  the  sympathetic  tattvic  chords  of 
the  solar  Prana  into  similar  motion.     That  is  to  say, 


these  pictures  are  now  consigned  to  the  solar  Prana, 
whence  in  due  course  they  reach  step  by  step  to  the 
universal  intelligence  itself. 

Secondly,  these  rays  react  upon  themselves,  and 
turning  from  the  limiting  sphere,  are  again  reflected 
back  to  the  centre. 

It  is  these  pictures  which  the  attentive  mind  sees  in 
its  noonday  gaze  into  vacancy,  and  it  is  these  pictures, 
seen  in  this  mysterious  way,  which  give  us  the  finest 
food  for  our  imagination  and  intellect,  and  supply  us 
with  a  far-reaching  clue  to  the  nature  and  working  of 
the  laws  which  govern  the  life  of  the  macrocosm  and 
the  microcosm.  For  these  pictures  tell  us  that  the 
smallest  of  our  actions,  on  whatever  plane  of  our  exist 
ence,  actions  which  may  be  so  insignificant  as  to  pass 
unnoticed  even  by  ourselves,  are  destined  to  receive 
an  everlasting  record,  as  the  effect  of  the  past  and  the 
cause  of  the  future.  These  pictures,  again,  tell  us  of 
the  existence  of  the  five  universal  Tattvas,  which  play 
so  important  a  part  in  the  universe.  It  is  these  pictures 
which  lead  us  to  the  discovery  of  the  manifold  consti 
tution  of  man  and  the  universe,  and  of  those  powers 
of  the  mind  which  have  not  yet  received  recognition 
at  the  hands  of  the  official  science  of  the  day. 

That  these  truths  have  found  place  in  the  Upani- 
shads  may  be  seen  from  the  following  quotation  from 
the  Ishopanishad  (Mantra  4) : 

"The  Atma  does  not  move;  is  one;  is  swifter  than 
the  mind;  the  senses  reach  it  not;  as  it  is  the  foremost 
in  motion.  It  goes  beyond  the  others  in  rapid  motion 


while  itself  at  rest,  in   it  the  Recorder  preserves  the 

In  the  above  quotation  it  is  the  word  Matarishva 
that  I  translate  "Recorder."  Ordinarily  the  word  is 
translated  as  "air,"  and  so  far  as  I  know,  the  word  has 
never  been  understood  clearly  in  the  sense  of  the 
"Recorder."  My  view,  therefore,  may  be  further  ex 
plained  with  advantage. 

The  word  is  a  compound  of  the  words  mdtari  and 
svah.  The  word  mdtari  is  the  locative  case  of  mdtri 
which  ordinarily  means  "mother,"  but  which  is  here 
rendered  as  space,  as  the  substratum  of  distance,  from 
the  root  md,  to  measure.  The  second  word  of  the  com 
pound  means  "the  breather,"  coming  as  it  does  from 
the  root  svati,  to  breathe.  Hence  the  compound  means 
"he  who  breathes  in  space."  In  explaining  this  word 
the  commentator  Shankaracharya  goes  on  to  say : 

"The  word  'Matarishva,'  which  has  been  derived 
as  above,  means  the  Vayu  [the  mover]  which  carries 
in  it  all  the  manifestations  of  Prana,  which  is  action 
itself.  This  Prana  is  the  substratum  of  all  the  groups 
of  causes  and  effects,  and  in  it  all  the  causes  and  effects 
are  held  like  beads  on  a  thread,  hence  it  is  given  the 
name  of  Sutra  [the  thread]  inasmuch  as  it  holds  in 
itself  the  whole  of  the  world." 

It  is  further  said  that  the  "actions"  which  this 
Matarishva  holds  in  itself,  in  the  above  quotation,  are 
all  the  movements  of  the  individualized  Prana,  as 
well  as  are  the  actions  of  heating,  lighting,  burning, 
etc.,  of  the  macrocosmic  powers  known  as  Agni,  etc. 


Now  such  a  thing  can  by  no  means  be  the  atmo 
spheric  air.  It  is  evidently  that  phase  of  Prana  which 
carries  the  pictures  of  all  actions  and  all  motions 
from  every  point  of  space  to  every  other  point,  and  to 
the  limits  of  the  Siirya-mandala.  This  phase  of  Prana 
is  nothing  more  nor  less  than  the  Recorder.  It  holds 
in  itself  for  ever  and  ever  all  the  causes  and  effects, 
the  antecedents  and  consequents  of  this  world  of 

It  is  action  itself.  This  means  that  all  action  is  a 
change  of  phase  of  Prana. 

It  is  said  in  the  above  quotation  that  this  Recorder 
lives  in  the  Atma.  Inasmuch  as  the  Atma  exists, 
this  power  always  performs  its  function.  The  Prana 
draws  its  life  itself  from  the  Atma,  and  we  accordingly 
find  a  similarity  between  the  qualities  of  the  two.  It 
is  said  of  the  Atma  in  the  above  extract  that  it  does 
not  move,  and  yet  it  moves  faster  than  the  mind. 
These  appear  to  be  contradictory  qualities  at  the  first 
sight,  and  it  is  such  qualities  which  make  the  ordinary 
Ciod  of  common-place  theologians  the  absurd  being 
he  always  looks.  Let  us,  however,  apply  these  quali 
ties  to  Prana,  and  once  understood  on  this  plane,  they 
will  be  quite  as  clearly  understood  on  the  highest 
plane,  the  Atma.  It  has  been  said  more  than  once 
that  from  every  point  of  the  ocean  of  Prana  the  tattvic 
rays  fly  in  every  direction,  to  every  point  within  the 
Surya-mandala.  Thus  the  ocean  of  Prana  is  in 
eternal  motion.  For  all  this,  however,  does  one  point 
of  this  ocean  ever  change  its  place?  Of  course  not. 


Thus  \vhile  every  point  keeps  its  place,  every  point 
at  the  same  time  goes  and  shows  itself  in  every  other 

It  is  in  the  same  simple  way  that  the  all-pervading 
Atina  is  in  eternal  motion  and  yet  always  at  rest. 

Similar  is  the  case  with  all  the  planes  of  life,  all  our 
actions,  all  our  thoughts,  all  our  aspirations,  receive  an 
everlasting  record  in  the  books  of  Matarishva. 

I  must  now  notice  these  pictures  a  little  more  in 
detail.    The  science  of  photography  tells  us  that  under 
certain  conditions  the  visual  pictures  can  be  caught 
on  the  plane  of  the  sensitive  film.     But  how  can  we 
account  for  the  reading  of  letters  at  a  distance  of  thirty 
miles  or  more?     Such  phenomena  are  to  me  a  matter 
of   personal    experience.      Very  lately,   while   sitting 
abstracted,  or  it  may  be  in  a  kind  of  dream,  about  four 
o'clock  in  the  morning,  I  read  a  post-card  written  by 
a  friend  to  a  friend  about  me,  the  very  same  night,  at  a 
distance  of  almost  thirty  miles.    One  thing  more  must, 
I  think,  be  noticed  here.     Almost  half  the  card  spoke 
about   me,  the  rest  referred  to  other  matters  which 
might  have  merely  a  passing  interest  for  me.     Now 
the  rest  of  the  card  did  not  come  before  my  mind's  eye 
very  clearly,  and  I  felt  that  with  all  my  effort  I  could 
not  keep  my  eye  upon  those  lines   for  a  sufficiently 
long  time  to   understand   them,  but  was  irresistibly 
drawn  towards  the  paragraph  which  spoke  of  me,  and 
which  I  could  read  very  clearly.     Four  days  after  this 
the  addressee  of  the  card   showed   it  to  me;   it  was 
exactly  the  same,  sentence  by  sentence  (so  far  as  I 


could  remember),  as  I  had  seen  before.  I  mention 
this  phenomenon  in  particular,  as  in  it  the  various 
requisites  for  the  production  of  these  phenomena  are 
clearly  denned.  We  adduce  from  an  analysis  of  this 
incident  the  following  points : 

1.  The   writer   of   the   card   meant   when    he   was 
writing  that  I  should  read  the  card,  and  especially  the 
paragraph  which  concerned  me. 

2.  I  was  very  anxious  to  know  the  news  about  me 
which  that  card  contained. 

3.  Of  the  frame  of  mind  mentioned  above  in  which 
my  friend  wrote  the  card,  what  was  the  result?    The 
picture  of  his  thoughts  on  the  card,  both  on  the  physi 
cal  and  mental  plane,  flew  in  every  direction  along  the 
tattvic  rays  of  the  macrocosmic  Praua  and  mind.     A 
picture   was   immediately  made  on  the  macrocosmic 
spheres,  and  from  thence  it  bent  its  rays  towards  the 
destination  of  the  post-card.     No  doubt  all  minds  in 
the  whole  earth  received  a  shock  of  this  current  of 
thought  at  the  same  time.     But  my  mind  alone  was 
sensitive  to  the  card  and  the  news  it  contained.     It 
was,  therefore,  on  my  mind  alone  that  any  impression 
was  made.     The  rays  were,  as  it  were,  refracted  into 
my  mind,  and  the  result  described  above  followed. 

It  follows  from  this  illustration  that  in  order  to 
receive  the  pictorial  rays  of  the  Prana  we  must  have 
a  mind  in  a  state  of  sympathy,  and  not  of  antipathy ; 
that  is  to  say,  a  mind  free  from  all  action  or  intense 
feeling  for  the  time  being  is  the  fitting  receptacle  for 
the  pictorial  representations  of  the  cosmos,  and  so  for 


a  correct  knowledge  of  the  past  and  the  future.  And 
if  we  have  an  intense  desire  to  know  the  thing,  so 
much  the  better  for  us.  It  is  in  this  way  that  the 
spiritual  occultist  reads  the  records  of  the  past  in  the 
book  of  nature,  and  it  is  on  this  road  that  the  beginner 
in  this  science  must  walk  according  to  the  direction  of 
his  Guru. 

To  return  to  our  explanations.  It  must  be  under 
stood  that  everything  in  ever}-  aspect  that  has  been, 
or  is  in  being  on  our  planet  lias  a  legible  record  in  the 
book  of  nature,  and  the  tattvic  rays  of  the  Prana  and 
the  mind  are  constantly  bringing  the  outlines  of  these 
pictures  back  to  us.  It  is  to  a  great  extent  due  to  this 
that  the  past  never  leaves  us,  but  always  lives  within 
us,  although  many  of  its  most  magnificent  monuments 
have  been  for  ever  effaced  from  the  surface  of  our 
planet  for  the  ordinary  gaze.  These  returning  rays  are 
always  inclined  towards  the  centre  which  originally  gave 
them  birth.  In  the  case  of  the  mineral  surroundings 
of  terrestrial  phenomena  these  centres  are  preserved 
intact  for  ages  upon  ages,  and  it  is  quite  possible 
for  any  sensitive  mind,  at  any  time,  to  turn  these 
rays  towards  itself  by  coming  into  contact  with  any 
material  remains  of  historic  phenomena.  A  stone 
unearthed  at  Pompeii  is  pictured  as  part  of  the  great 
event  which  destroyed  the  city,  and  the  rays  of  that 
picture  are  naturally  inclined  towards  that  piece  of 
stone.  If  Mrs.  Denton  puts  the  stone  to  her  forehead, 
a  sympathetic  and  receptive  condition  is  the  only  pre 
requisite  for  the  transference  of  the  whole  picture  to 


her  mind.  This  sympathetic  state  of  mind  may  be 
natural  to  a  person,  or  it  may  be  acquired,  but  as  re 
gards  the  term  "natural"  it  may  be  mentioned  that 
what  we  are  in  the  habit  of  calling  natural  powers  are 
really  acquired,  but  they  have  been  acquired  in  pre 
vious  incarnations.  Says  Shiva: 

"There  are  some  to  whom  Tattvas  become  known, 
when  the  mind  is  purified  by  habituation,  either  by 
the  acquired  rapidity  of  other  births  or  by  the  kind 
ness  of  the  Guru." 

It  seems  that  two  pieces  of  granite,  the  same  to  all 
intents  and  purposes  externally,  may  have  an  entirely 
different  tattvic  colour,  for  the  colour  of  a  thing  de 
pends  to  a  very  great  extent  upon  its  tattvic  surround 
ings.  It  is  this  occult  colour  which  constitutes  the 


real  soul  of  things,  although  the  reader  must  by  this 
time  know  that  the  Sanskrit  word  Prana  is  more 

It  is  no  myth  to  say  that  the  practised  Yogi  may 
with  a  single  effort  of  his  will  bring  the  picture  of  any 
part  of  the  world,  past  or  present,  before  his  mind's  eye 
— and  not  only  visual  pictures,  as  our  illustration  might 
lead  the  reader  to  think.  The  preservation  and  forma 
tion  of  visual  pictures  is  only  the  work  of  the  liimini- 
ferous  ether — the  Tejas  Tattva.  The  other  Tattvas 
perform  their  functions  as  well.  The  Akasha  or  sono- 
riferous  ether  preserves  all  the  sounds  that  have  ever 
been  heard  or  are  being  heard  on  earth,  and  similarly 
do  the  three  others  preserve  the  records  of  the  remain 
ing  sensations  respectively.  We  see,  therefore,  that 


combining  all  these  pictures,  a  Yogi  in  contemplation 
may  have  before  his  mind's  eve  any  man  at  any 
distance  whatsoever  and  may  hear  his  voice  also. 
Glyndon,  in  Italy,  seeing  and  hearing  the  conversa 
tion  of  Viola  and  Zanoni  in  their  distant  home,  is 
therefore  not  merely  a  dream  of  the  poet,  but  a  scien 
tific  reality.  The  only  thing  necessary  is  to  have  a 
sympathetic  mind.  The  phenomena  of  mental  tele 
graphy,  psychometry,  clairvoyance,  clairandicnce,  are 
all  phases  of  this  tattvic  action.  Once  understood  it 
is  all  a  very  simple  affair.  It  may  be  useful  in  this 
place  to  offer  some  reflections  as  to  how  these  pictorial 
representations  of  a  man's  present  go  to  shape  his 
future.  I  shall  first  attempt  to  show  how  complete 
the  record  is.  I  may  at  the  outset  remind  the  reader 
of  what  was  said  above  about  the  tattvic  colour  of 
even-thing.  It  is  this  which  gives  individuality  even 
to  a  piece  of  stone. 

This  pictorial  whole  is  only  the  cosmic  counterpart 
of  the  individual  Pranamaya  Kosha  or  the  coil  of  life. 
It  is  possible  that  anyone  who  may  not  have  thoroughly 
understood  the  manner  of  the  storing  up  of  tattvic 
energy  in  the  individual  Prana,  may  more  easily  com 
prehend  the  phenomena  in  its  cosmic  counterpart.  In 
fact,  the  macrocosmic  and  microcosmic  phenomena  are 
both  links  of  the  same  chain,  and  both  will  conduce 
to  the  thorough  understanding  of  the  whole.  Suppose 
a  man  stands  on  a  mountain,  with  the  finest  prospect 
of  nature  stretched  out  before  his  eyes.  As  he  stands 
there  contemplatino-  this  wealth  of  beauty,  his  picture 


in  this  posture  is  at  once  made  in  the  ecliptic.  Not 
only  is  his  external  appearance  pictured,  but  the  hue 
of  his  life  receives  the  fullest  representation.  If  the 
Agni  Tattva  prevails  in  him  at  that  moment,  if  there 
is  the  light  of  satisfaction  in  his  face,  if  the  look  in 
his  eyes  is  calm,  collected,  and  pleasant,  if  he  is  so 
much  absorbed  in  the  gaze  as  to  forget  everything  else, 
Tattvas  separate  or  in  composition  will  do  their  duty, 
and  all  the  satisfaction,  calmness,  pleasure,  attention 
or  inattention  will,  to  the  finest  possible  shade,  be 
represented  in  the  sphere  of  the  ecliptic.  If  he  walks 
or  runs,  comes  down  or  goes  up,  the  tattvic  rays  of 
Prana  with  the  utmost  faithfulness  picture  the  gene 
rating  and  the  generated  colours  in  the  same  retentive 

A  man  stands  with  a  weapon  in  his  hand,  with  the 
look  of  cruelty  in  his  eyes,  with  the  glow  of  inhumanity 
in  his  veins,  his  victim,  man  or  animal,  helpless  or 
struggling  before  him.  The  whole  phenomenon  is 
instantaneously  recorded.  There  stands  the  murderer 
and  the  victim  in  their  truest  possible  colours,  there  is 
the  solitary  room  or  jungle,  the  dirty  shed  or  the  filthy 
slaughter-house;  all  are  there  as  surely  and  certainly 
as  they  are  in  the  eye  of  the  murderer  or  the  victim 


Let  us  again  change  the  scene.  We  have  a  liar 
before  us.  He  tells  a  lie,  and  thereby  injures  some 
brother  man.  No  sooner  is  the  word  uttered  than  the 
Akasha  sets  to  work  with  all  possible  activity.  There 
we  have  the  most  faithful  representation.  The  liar  is 


there  from  the  reflection  which  the  thought  of  the 
injured  person  throws  into  the  individual  Prana;  there 
is  the  injured  man  also.  The  words  are  there  with  all 
the  energy  of  the  contemplated  wrong.  And  if  that 
contemplated  wrong  is  completed,  there  is  also  the 
change  for  worse  which  his  mendacity  has  produced  in 
the  victim.  There  is  nothing  in  fact  of  the  surround 
ings,  the  antecedents  and  the  consequent  postures — 
the  causes  and  effects — which  is  not  there  represented. 

The  scene  changes,  and  we  come  to  a  thief.  Let  the 
night  be  as  dark  as  it  may,  let  the  thief  be  as  circum 
spect  and  wary  as  he  can,  our  picture  is  there  with 
all  its  colours  well  defined,  though  not  perhaps  so 
prominent.  The  time,  the  house,  the  wall  with  a  hole, 
the  sleeping  and  injured  inmates,  the  stolen  property, 
the  subsequent  day,  the  sorrowful  householders,  with  all 
the  antecedent  and  consequent  situations,  are  pictured. 
And  this  is  not  only  for  the  murderer,  the  thief,  the 
liar,  but  for  the  adulterer,  the  forger,  the  villain  who 
thinks  his  crime  hidden  from  every  human  eye.  Their 
deeds,  like  all  deeds  that  have  ever  been  done,  are 
vividly,  clearly,  exactly  recorded  in  Nature's  picture- 
gallery.  Instances  might  be  multiplied,  for  the  pheno 
mena  of  our  social  life  are  various  and  complicated. 
But  it  is  unnecessary.  What  has  been  said  is  sufficient 
to  explain  the  principle,  and  the  application  is  useful 
and  not  very  difficult.  But  we  must  now  bring  our 
pictures  back  from  our  gallery. 

We  have  seen  that  time  and  space  and  all  the 
possible  factors  of  a  phenomenon  receive  there  an 


accurate  representation,  and,  as  I  said  before,  these 
tattvic  rays  are  united  to  the  time  that  saw  them 
leaving  their  record  on  the  plane  of  our  pictorial 
region.  When,  in  the  course  of  ages,  the  same  time 
throws  its  shade  again  upon  the  earth,  the  pictorial 
rays,  stored  up  long  since,  energize  man-producing 
matter,  and  shape  it  according  to  their  own  potential 
energy,  which  now  begins  to  become  active.  It  will 
be  readily  conceded  that  the  sun  gives  life  to  the  earth 
— to  men  as  well  as  to  vegetables  and  minerals.  Solar 
life  takes  human  shape  in  the  womb  of  the  mother, 
and  this  is  only  an  infusion  of  some  one  set  of  our 
pictorial  rays  into  the  sympathetic  life,  which  already 
shows  itself  on  our  planet.  These  rays  thus  produce 
for  themselves  a  human  gross  body  in  the  womb  of  the 
mother,  and  then  having  the  now  somewhat  different 
and  differing  maternal  body,  start  on  their  terrestrial 
journey.  As  time  advances,  the  pictorial  representation 
changes  its  tattvic  postures,  and  with  it  the  gross  body 
does  the  same. 

In  the  case  of  the  re-birth  of  the  man  we  saw  gazing 
on  the  mountains,  the  calm,  watchful,  contented  atti 
tude  of  the  mind  which  he  cultivated  then  has  its 
influence  upon  the  organism  now,  once  more  the  man 
enjoys  the  beauty  of  nature  and  so  is  pleased  and 

But  now  take  the  case  of  the  cruel  murderer.  He  is 
by  nature  cruel,  he  still  yearns  to  murder  and  destroy, 
and  he  could  not  be  restrained  from  his  horrible 
practices,  but  that  the  picture  of  the  ebbing  life  of 


tlie  victim  is  now  part  and  parcel  of  his  constitution ; 
the  pain,  the  terror,  and  the  feeling  of  despair  and 
helplessness  are  there  in  all  their  strength.  Occasion 
ally  he  feels  as  if  the  blood  of  life  were  leavino-  his 


very  veins.  There  is  no  apparent  cause,  and  yet  he 
suffers  pain;  lie  is  subject  to  unaccountable  fits  of 
terror,  despair  and  helplessness.  His  life  is  miserable; 
slowly  but  surely  it  wanes  away. 

Let  the  curtain  fall  on  this  scene.  The  incarnated 
thief  now  conies  on  the  stage.  His  friends  leave  him 
one  by  one  or  he  is  driven  away  from  them.  The 
picture  of  the  lonely  house  must  assert  its  power  over 
him.  He  is  doomed  to  a  lonely  house.  The  picture 
of  somebody  coming  into  the  house  through  some  un 
frequented  part,  stealing  some  of  his  property,  perhaps 
strangling  him,  makes  its  appearance  with  the  fullest 
strength.  The  man  is  doomed  to  eternal  cowardice. 
He  draws  towards  himself  irresistibly  the  men  who 
will  cause  him  the  same  grief  and  heartrending  he  long 
ago  caused  to  others.  This  posture  of  heartrending 
grief  has  its  influence  upon  him  in  the  ordinary 
way,  and  it  creates  its  surroundings  under  the  same 

Take,  too,  the  case  of  the  adulterer.  As  he  walks 
upon  the  earth,  he  is  attracted  towards  as  many  of  the 
other  sex  as  he  has  guiltily  loved  before.  He  loves  one, 
and  his  love  might  meet  with  a  favourable  response, 
but  very  soon  a  second,  a  third,  and  a  fouith  picture 
make  their  appearance,  which  are,  as  a  matter  of  course, 
antagonistic  to  the  first  and  repel  it.  The  pledf  -s  of 


love  are  quite  unaccountably  broken,  and  the  heart 
rending  pain  that  is  caused  may  well  be  imagined. 
All  the  jealousy  and  all  the  complicated  quarrels  of 
lovers  might  with  ease  be  traced  to  causes  such  as 


And  those  who  have  sinned  by  selling  their  love 
gold  long  ago  will   now  love  and  will   in  return  be 
looked  down  upon  with  contempt  for  their  poverty. 
What  can  be  more  miserable  than  to  be  denied  even 
the  luxury  of  love  through  very  poverty? 

These  illustrations  are,  I  believe,  sufficient  to  explain 
the  law  according  to  which  these  cosmic  pictures 
govern  our  future  lives.  Whatever  other  sins  may 
be  committed  under  the  innumerable  varying  circum 
stances  of  life,  their  tattvic  effects  can  easily  be  traced 
through  the  pictorial  representations  of  the  cosmos. 

It  is  not  difficult  to  understand  that  the  picture  of 
each  individual  organism  in  Prana,  although  ever 
changing  with  the  varying  postures  of  the  object, 
remains  the  same  in  substance.  Every  object  exists 
in  its  form  of  Prana  until,  in  the  course  of  evolution, 
Prana  itself  merges  into  the  higher  atmosphere  of 


Every  genus  and  every  species  of  living  org; 
upon  the  face  of  the  earth  is  pictured  in  Prana,  and  it  is 
these  pictures  which  on  the  highest  plane  of  existence 
correspond  in  my  opinion  to  the  idfas  of  Plato.  A  very 
interesting  question  arises  at  this  point.  Are  these 
pictures  of  eternal  existence,  or  do  they  only  come 
into  existence  after  formations  have  taken  place  on  the 


terrestrial  plane?  Ex  iiihilo  niJiil  fit  is  a  well-known 
doctrine  of  philosophy,  and  I  hold  with  Vyasa  that 
the  representations  (what  we  now  call  pictures)  of  all 
objects  in  their  generic,  specific,  and  individual  capa 
cities  have  ever  been  existing  in  the  universal  mind. 
Svara,  or  what  may  be  called  the  Breath  of  God,  the 
Breath  of  Life,  is  nothing  more  nor  less,  as  has  already 
been  explained,  than  abstract  intelligence,  or  if  such 
an  expression  be  better  understood,  intelligent  motion. 
Our  book  says : 

"In  the  Svara  are  pictured,  or  represented,  the  Vedas 
and  the  Shastras,  in  the  Svara  the  highest  Gandharvas, 
and  in  the  Svara  all  the  three  worlds;  the  Svara  is 
A  turn  itself." 

It  is  not  necessary  to  enter  more  thoroughly  into  a 
discussion  of  this  problem ;  the  suggestion  is  sufficient. 
It  may,  however,  be  said  that  all  formation  in  pro 
gress  on  the  face  of  our  planet  is  the  assuming  by 
everything  under  the  influence  of  solar  ideas  of  the 
shape  of  these  ideas.  The  process  is  precisely  similar 
to  the  process  of  wet  earth  taking  impressions  of  any 
thing  that  is  pressed  upon  it.  The  idea  of  anything 
is  its  soul. 

Human  souls  (Pranamaya  Koshas)  exist  in  this 
sphere  just  like  the  souls  of  other  things,  and  are 
affected  in  that  home  of  theirs  by  terrestrial  experience 
in  the  manner  above  mentioned. 

In  the  course  of  ages,  these  ideas  make  their  appear 
ance  in  the  physical  plane  again  and  again,  according 
to  laws  previously  hinted  at. 


I  have  also  said  that  these  pictures  have  their 
counterparts  in  the  mental  and  the  higher  atmospheres. 
Now  it  might  be  said  that  just  as  these  solar  pictures 
recur  again  and  again,  there  are  times  at  which  these 
mental  pictures  also  recur.  The  ordinary  deaths  known 
to  us  are  terrestrial  deaths.  That  is  to  say  they  consist 
in  the  withdrawal  of  the  influence  of  the  solar  pictures 
for  a  time  from  the  earth.  When  that  time  has  ex 
pired,  the  duration  depending  upon  the  colours  of  the 
picture,  they  throw  their  influence  again  upon  the 
earth,  and  we  have  terrestrial  re-birth.  We  may  die 
any  number  of  terrestrial  deaths,  and  yet  our  solar  life 
may  not  be  extinct. 

But  men  of  the  present  Marivantara  may  die  solar 
deaths  under  certain  circumstances.  Then  they  pass 
out  of  the  influence  of  the  sun,  and  are  born  again 
only  in  the  reign  of  the  second  Manu.  Men  who  now 
die  solar  deaths  will  remain  in  a  state  of  bliss  all 
through  the  present  Manvantara.  Their  re-birth  may 
also  be  delayed  for  more  than  one  Manvantara.  All 
these  pictures  remain  in  the  bosom  of  Mauu  during 
the  Manvantaric  Pralaya.  In  the  same  way  men 
may  undergo  higher  deaths,  and  pass  their  time  in  a 
state  of  even  higher  and  more  enduring  bliss.  The 
mental  coil  may  be  broken,  too,  just  as  the  gross,  the 
terrestrial,  and  the  solar  may  be,  and  then  the  blessed 
soul  remains  in  bliss  and  unborn  until  the  dawn  of  the 
second  Day  of  Brahma.  Higher  still  and  longer  is  the 
state  which  follows  Brahmic  death.  Then  the  spirit  is 
at  rest  for  the  remaining  Kalpa  and  the  Mahapralaya 


that  follows.  After  this  it  will  be  easy  to  understand 
the  meaning  of  the  Hindu  doctrine,  that  during  the 
Night  of  Brahma,  as,  indeed,  during  all  the  minor 
Nights,  the  human  soul,  and,  in  fact,  the  whole  of  the 
universe,  is  hidden  in  the  bosom  of  Brahma  like  the 
tree  in  the  seed. 



PSYCHIC  force  is  the  form  of  matter  known  as  Vijnana 
in  active  connection  with  the  mental  and  life-matters. 
In  the  quotation  given  above  from  the  Ishopanishad, 
it  has  been  said  that  the  Devas— the  macrocosmic  and 
microcosmic  manifestations  of  Prana— do  not  reach 
the  Atma,  inasmuch  as  it  moves  faster  than  even  the 
mind.      The  Tattvas  of  Prana  move  with  a  certain 
momentum.      The   mind    has    greater   velocity,   and 
psychic  matter  greater  still.     In  the  presence  of  the 
higher,  the  lower  plane  always  appears  to  be  at  rest, 
and  is  always  amenable  to  its  influence.     Creation  is  a 
manifestation  of  the  psychic  force  on  the  lower  planes 
of   existence.      The    first   process   is,   of   course,  the 
appearance  of  the  various  macrocosmic  spheres  with 
their  various  centres.     In  each  of  these  spheres— the 
Prana,  the    Manas,   and    the    Vijnana-the  universal 
tattvic  rays  on  their  own  planes  give  birth  to  innu 
merable  individualities.     Each  Truti  on  the  plane  of 
Prana  is  a  life-coil   (Pranamaya  Kosha).      The  rays 
which  give  existence  to  each  of  these  Trutis  come  from 
each  and  all  of  the  other  Trutis,  which  are  situated  in 


the  space  allotted  to  each  of  the  five  Tattvas  and  their 
innumerable  admixtures,  and  which  represent  therefore 
all  the  possible  tattvic  manifestations  of  life. 

On  the  plane  of  Manas  each  mental  Truti  represents 
an  individual  mind.  Each  individual  mind  is  given 
birth  to  by  mental  tattvic  rays  from  the  other  quarters. 
These  rays  come  from  all  the  other  Trutis  situated 
under  the  dominion  of  each  of  the  five  Tattvas  and 
their  innumerable  admixtures;  representing  therefore 
all  the  possible  tattvic  phases  of  mental  life. 

On  the  psychic  plane,  each  Truti  represents  an 
individual  soul  brought  into  existence  by  the  psychic 
Tattvas  flying  from  every  point  to  every  other  point. 
These  rays  come  from  every  Truti  situated  under  the 
dominion  of  each  of  the  five  Tattvas  and  their  innu 
merable  admixtures ;  thus  representing  all  the  possible 
manifestations  of  psychic  life. 

The  latter  class  of  Trutis  on  the  various  planes  of 
existence  are  the  so-called  gods  and  goddesses.  The 
former  class  are  coils  which  manifest  themselves  in 
earth  life. 

Each  psychic  Truti  is  thus  a  little  reservoir  of  every 
possible  tattvic  phase  of  life  which  may  manifest  itself 
on  the  lower  planes  of  existence.  And  so,  sending  its 
rays  downwards  just  like  the  sun,  these  Trutis  manifest 
themselves  in  the  Trutis  of  the  lower  planes.  Accord 
ing  to  the  prevalent  phase  of  tattvic  colour  in  these 
three  sets  of  Trutis,  the  Vijiiana  (psychic  Truti)  selects 
its  mind,  the  mind  selects  its  coil,  and  in  the  end  the 
life-coil  creates  its  habitation  on  earth. 


The  first  function  of  the  individual  Tniti,  Yijiiana, 
is  to  sustain  the  life  of  the  mental  Trati  just  as  the 
macrocosmic  Vijnana  sustains  the  life  of  the  macro- 
cosmic  mind.  And  so  also  does  the  mental  Truti  sustain 
the  life  of  the  individual  Truti  of  Prana.  In  this  state 
the  souls  are  only  conscious  of  their  subjectivity  with 
reference  to  the  mind  and  the  Prana.  They  know  that 
they  sustain  the  lower  Trutis,  they  know  themselves, 
they  know  all  the  other  psychic  Trutis,  they  know  the 
whole  of  the  macrocosm  of  Ishvara,  the  tattvic  ray.-; 
reflecting  every  point  into  their  individual  conscious 
ness.  They  are  omniscient;  they  are  perfectly  happy 
because  they  are  perfectly  balanced. 

When  the  Pranamaya  Kosha  enters  the  habitation 
of  earth,  the  soul  is  for  the  first  time  assailed  by  fini- 
tude.  This  means  a  curtailment,  or  rather  the  creation 
of  a  new  curtailed  consciousness.  For  long  ages  the 
soul  takes  no  note  of  these  finite  sensations,  but  as 
the  impressions  gain  greater  and  greater  strength  they 
are  deluded  into  a  belief  of  identity  with  these  finite 
impressions.  From  absolute  subjectivity  conscious 
ness  is  transferred  to  relative  passivity.  A  new  world 
of  appearances  is  created.  This  is  their  fall.  How 
these  sensations  and  perceptions,  etc.,  are  born,  and 
how  they  affect  the  soul,  has  been  already  discussed. 
How  the  soul  is  awakened  out  of  this  forgetful  ness 
and  what  it  does  then  to  liberate  itself  will  come 
further  on. 

It  will  be  seen  at  this  stage  that  the  soul  lives  two 
lives,  an  active  and  a  passive.  Jn  the  active  capacity 


it  goes  on  governing  and  sustaining  the  substantial 
life  of  the  lower  Trutis.  In  the  passive  capacity 
it  forgets  itself,  and  deludes  itself  into  identity  with 
the  changes  of  the  lower  Trutis  imprinted  upon  them 
by  the  external  Tattvas.  The  consciousness  is  trans 
ferred  to  finite  phases. 

The  whole  fight  of  the  soul  upon  reawakening 
consists  in  the  attempt  to  do  away  with  its  passive 
capacity  and  regain  its  pristine  purity.  This  fight  is 
Yoga,  and  the  powers  which  Yoga  evokes  in  the  mind 
and  the  Prana  are  nothing  more  than  tattvic  manifes 
tations  of  the  psychic  force,  calculated  to  destroy  the 
power  of  the  external  world  on  the  soul.  This  con 
stant  change  of  phase  in  the  new  unreal  finite  coils 
of  existence  is  the  upward  march  of  the  life-current 
iroin  the  beginnings  of  relative  consciousness  to  the 
original  absolute  state. 

There  is  no  difficulty  in  understanding  the  how  of 
these  manifestations.  They  are  there  in  the  psychic 
escrvoir,  they  simply  show  themselves  when  the 
lower  Trutis  assume  the  state  of  sympathetic  polish 
and  tattvic  inclination.  Thus  the  spectrum  only 
shows  itself  when  certain  objects  assume  the  polish 
and  form  of  a  prism. 

Ordinarily  the  psychic  force  does  not  manifest  itself 
either  in  the  Prana  or  the  mind  in  any  uncommon 
phase.  Humanity  progresses  as  a  whole,  and  what 
ever  manifestations  of  this  force  take  place,  they  take 
in  races  as  a  whole.  Finite  minds  are  there-fore  slow 


But  all  the  individuals  of  a  race  have  not  the  same 
strength  of  tattvic  phase.  Some  show  greater  sym 
pathy  with  the  psychic  force  in  one  or  more  of  its 
component  tattvic  phases.  Such  organisms  are  called 
mediums.  In  them  the  particular  tattvic  phase  of 
psychic  force  with  which  they  are  in  greater  sympathy 
than  the  rest  of  their  kind,  makes  its  uncommon 
appearance.  This  difference  of  individual  sympathy 
is  caused  by  a  difference  of  degree  in  the  commissions 
and  omissions  of  different  individuals,  or  by  the  prac 
tice  of  Yoga. 

This  psychic  force  may  in  this  way  manifest  itself 
in  the  shape  of  all  the  innumerable  possibilities  of 
tattvic  combination.  Therefore,  so  far  as  theory  is 
concerned,  these  manifestations  may  cover  the  whole 
domain  of  tattvic  manifestations  in  the  visible  and 
also  in  the  invisible  macrocosm,  which  latter,  however, 
we  know  not.  These  manifestations  may  violate  all 
our  present  notions  of  time  and  space,  cause  and 
effect,  force  and  matter.  Intelligently  utilized,  this 
force  might  very  well  perform  the  functions  of  the 
vril  of  The  Coming  Race.  The  following  essay  will 
trace  some  of  these  manifestations  on  the  plane  of  the 



I  HAVE  now  described  more  or  less  perfectly  two 
principles  of  the  human  constitution— Prana  and 
Manas.  Something  has  also  been  said  about  the 
nature  and  relations  of  the  soul.  The  gross  body  was 
omitted  as  needing  no  special  handling. 

The  five  manifestations  of  each  of  the  two  principles 
—the  Prana  and  the  Manas— it  may  be  mentioned,  may 
be  either  fortunate  or  unfortunate.  Those  manifesta 
tions  are  fortunate  which  are  consonant  with  our  true 
culture,  which  lead  us  to  our  highest  spiritual  develop 
ment,  the  summum  bcniiiin  of  humanity.  Those  that 
keep  us  chained  to  the  sphere  of  recurring  births  and 
deaths  may  be  called  unfortunate.  On  each  of  the  two 
planes  of  life— Prana  and  Manas— there  is  a  possibility 
of  double  existence.  We  may  have,  and,  in  fact, 
in  the  present  conditions  of  the  universe  we  have,  a 
fortunate  and  an  unfortunate  Prana,  a  happy  and  an 
unhappy  mind.  Considering  these  two  to  be  four,  the 
number  of  the  principles  of  the  human  constitution 
may  be  raised  from  five  to  seven.  The  unhappy 
intelligences  of  the  one  plane  ally  themselves  with 


the  unhappy  ones  of  the  other,  the  happy  oiies  with 
the  happy,  and  we  have  in  the  human  constitution 
an  arrangement  of  principles  something  like  the 
following : 

1.  The  gross  body  (Sthiila  Sharira). 

2.  \  The  unhappy  Prana. 

3.  I  The  unhappy  Mind. 

4.  }  The  happy  Prana. 

5.  »  The  happy  Mind. 

6.  The  soul  (Vijnana). 

7.  The  spirit  (Ananda). 

The  fundamcntnm  divisionis  in  the  fivefold  division 
is  the  Upadhi,  the  particular  and  distinct  state  of  matter 
(Prakriti)  in  each  case ;  in  the  sevenfold  division  it  is 
the  nature  of  Karma  with  reference  to  its  effect  upon 
human  evolution. 

Both  the  sets  of  these  powers— the  blessed  and  the 
unhappy— work  upon  the  same  plane,  and  although 
the  blessed  manifestations  tend  in  the  long  run  towards 
the  state  of  Moksha,  that  state  is  not  reached  until  the 
higher  powers — the  Siddhis— are  induced  in  the  mind 
by  the  exercise  of  Yoga.  Yoga  is  a  power  of  the  soul. 
It  is,  therefore,  necessary  to  say  something  about  the 
soul  and  Yoga,  before  the  higher  powers  of  the  mind 
can  be  intelligibly  described.  Yoga  is  the  science  of 
human  culture  in  the  highest  sense  of  the  word.  Its 
purpose  is  the  purification  and  strengthening  of  the 
mind.  By  its  exercise  the  mind  is  filled  with  high 
aspirations,  and  acquires  divine  powers,  while  the 
unhappy  tendencies  die  out.  The  second  and  third 

YOGA — THK    SOUL.  147 

principles  of  this  essay  are  burnt  up  by  the  fire  of 
divine  knowledge,  and  the  state  of  what  is  called 
salvation  in  life  is  attained.  By  and  by  the  fourth 
principle,  too,  becomes  neutral,  and  the  soul  passes 
into  a  state  of  Manvantaric  Moksha.  Higher  still 
the  soul  may  pass,  according  to  the  strength  of  her 
exercise.  When  the  mind,  too,  is  at  rest,  as  in  sound 
sleep  (Sushupti),  during  life,  the  omniscience  of  the 
Vijiiana  is  reached.  There  is  a  state  higher  still — the 
state  of  Ananda.  Such  are  the  results  of  Yoga;  I  must 
now  describe  the  nature  of  the  thing  and  the  process 
of  acquirement. 

So  far  as  the  nature  of  Yoga  is  concerned  I  may 
say  that  mankind  has  reached  its  present  state  of 
development  by  the  exercise  of  this  great  power. 
Nature  herself  is  a  great  Yogi,  and  humanity  has  been, 
and  is  being,  purified  into  perfection  by  the  exercise  of 
her  sleepless  will.  Man  need  only  imitate  the  great 
teacher  to  shorten  for  his  individual  self  the  road  to 
perfection.  How  are  we  to  render  ourselves  fit  for  that 
great  imitation  ?  What  are  the  steps  on  the  great  ladder 
of  perfection?  These  things  have  been  discovered 
for  us  by  the  great  sages  of  yore,  and  Patanjali's 
little  book  is  only  a  short  and  suggestive  transcript 
of  so  much  of  our  past  experiences  and  future  poten 
tialities  as  is  recorded  in  the  book  of  nature.  This 
little  book  uses  the  word  Yoga  in  a  double  significa 
tion.  The  first  is  a  state  of  the  mind  otherwise  called 
Samadhi;  the  second  is  a  set  of  acts  and  observances 
which  induce  that  state  in  the  mind.  The  definition 


o  by  the   sage   is  a   negative  one,  and   is   only 

applicable  on  the  plane  of  the  mind.     The  source  oi 
the  positive  power  lies  in  the  higher  principle,  the  soul. 
Yoga,  it  is  said,  is  the  keeping  in  check  of  the  . 
manifestations  of  the  mind.     In  the  very  wording  of 
the  definition  is  involved  the  supposition  of  the  < 
ence  of  a  power  which  can  control  and  keep  in  check 
the  mental  manifestations.     This  power  is  otherwis 
familiar  to  us  as  freedom  of  the  will.    Although  by  the 
manifestations  of  egoism  (Asmita)  on  the  mental  plane 
the  soul  is  deluded  into  regarding  herself  as  a  slave 
the  second  and  third  principles,  the  fact  is  not  such, 
and  as  soon  as  the  chord  of  egoism  is  slackened  to  a 
certain  extent,  the  awakening  takes  place.    This  is  the 
first  step  in  the  initiation  by  nature  herself  of  the  race 
of  man.    It  is  a  matter  of  necessity.    The  working  side 
by  side  with  each  other  of  the  second  and  third,  and 
the  fourth  and  fifth  principles,  weakens  the  hold  of 
natural  mental  Asmita  upon  the  soul.     "I  am  these, 
or  of  these  mental  manifestations,"  says  egoism.    Su 
a  state  of  things  cannot,  however,  last  long.     These 
manifestations  arc  double  in  their  nature;  the  one  : 
just  the  reverse  of  the  other.     Which  of  them  is  one 
with  the  Ego-the  unhappy  or  the  blessed? 
is  this  question  asked  than  the  awakening  takes  place. 
It  is  impossible  to  answer  any  of  these  questions  in  the 
affirmative,  and  the  soul  naturally  ends  in  discovering 
that  she  is  a  separate  thing  from  the  mind,  that  though 
she  has  been  the  slave,  she  might  be  (what  she  natur 
ally  is)  the  Lord  of  the  mind.     Up  to  this  time 

YOGA—  TIIK    SOU!.. 

soul  has  been  tossed  this  way  or  that,  in  obedience  to 
the  tattvic  vibrations  of  the  mind.     Her  blind  sym 
pathy  with  the  mental  manifestations  gives  her  unison 
with  the  mind,  and  hence  the  tossing     By  the  waking 
above  noticed,  the  chord  of  sympathy  is  loosened     The 
stronger  the  nature,  the  greater  the  departure  from 
Instead    of   the   soul    being   tossed   by   the 
mental  vibrations,  it  is  now  time  that  the  mind  should 
vibrate   in  obedience   to  the  vibrations  of  the   soul 
This  assumption  of  lordship  is  the  freedom  of  the 
will,  and  this  obedience  of  the  mind  to  the  vibrations 
of  the  soul  is  Yoga.     The  manifestations  evoked  in 
the  mind  by  the  external  Tattvas  must  now  give  way 
to  the  stronger  motion  coming  from  the  soul/   By  and 
y  the  mental  colours  change  their  very  nature,  and 
the  mind  comes  to  coincide  with  the  soul.     In  other 
words,  the  individual  mental  principle  is  neutralized 
and  the  soul  is  free  in  her  omniscience. 

Let  us  now  trace  step  by  step  up  to  Samadhi  the 
acquirements  of  the  mind. 

Samadhi,  or  the  mental  state  induced  by  the  prac 
tice  of  Yoga,  is  of  two  descriptions.     As  long  as  the 
mind  is  not  perfectly  absorbed  in  the  soul  the  state  is 
called  Samprajnata.     It  is  that  state  in  which  the  dis 
covery  of  new  truths  in  every  department  of  nature 
follows  labour.     The  second   is  the  state  of  perfect 
mental  absorption.      It   is  called   Asamprajnata.      In 
this  there  is  no  knowing,  no  discovering  of  unknown 
It  is  a  state  of  intuitive  omniscience      Two 
questions  are  naturally  suggested  at  the  awakening 


stage.  "If  I  am  these  manifestations,  which  of  them 
anTl?  I  think  I  am  none  of  them.  What  am  I  then? 
What  are  these?"  The  second  question  is  solved  in 
the  Samprajnata  Sainadhi,  the  first  in  the  other.  Be 
fore  entering  further  into  the  nature  of  Samadhi  a 
word  about  habitation  and  apathy.  These  two  are 
mentioned  by  Patanjali  as  the  two  means  of  checking 
mental  manifestations,  and  it  is  very  important  to 
understand  them  thoroughly.  The  manifestation  of 
apathy  is  the  reflection  in  the  mind  of  the  colour  of 
the  soul  when  she  becomes  aware  of  her  free  nature 
and  is  disgusted  consequently  at  the  sway  of  the 
passions.  It  is  a  necessary  consequence  of  the  awaken  - 
ing.  Habituation  is  the  repetition  of  the  state  so  as 
to  confirm  it  in  the  mind. 

The  confirmation  of  the  mind  in  this  state  means 

a  state  of  ordinary  mental  inactivity.     By  this  I  mean 

that  the  five  ordinary  manifestations  are  for  the  time 

being  at  rest.     This  being  so,  the  mind  is  for  the  time 

left  free  to  receive  any  influences.     Here  for  the  first 

time  we  see  the  influence  of  the  soul  in  the  shape  of 

curiosity   (Vitarka).     What   is  this?    What   is   that? 

How   is   this?     How  is  that?     This  is  the  form  in 

which  curiosity  shows  itself  in  the  mind.     Curiosity 

is  a  desire  to  know,  and  a  question  is  an  expression  of 

such  a  desire.     But  how  does  man  become  familiar 

with  questions?    The  mental  shape  of  curiosity  and 

question  will  be  easily  understood  by  paying  a  little 

attention  to  the  remarks  I  have  made  on  the  genesis 

of  desire.     The  process  of  the  birth  of  philosophical 



curiosity  is  similar  to  that  of  the  birth  of  desire.  In 
the  latter  the  impulse  conies  from  the  external  world 
through  Prana;  in  the  former  directly  from  the  soul. 
The  place  of  pleasure  in  this  is  supplied  by  the  reflec 
tion  into  the  mind  of  the  knowledge  of  the  soul  that 
Self  and  independence  are  better  than  the  bondage  of 
Non-Self.  The  strength  of  .the  philosophical  curiosity 
depends  upon  the  strength  of  this  reflection,  and  as 
this  reflection  is  rather  faint  in  the  beginning  (as  in 
the  present  state  of  the  spiritual  development  of 
humanity  it  generally  is),  the  hold  of  philosophical 
curiosity  upon  the  mind  bears  almost  no  comparison 
in  strength  with  the  hold  of  desire. 

Philosophical  curiosity  is  then  the  first  step  of 
menial  ascent  towards  Yoga.  We  place  before  our 
mind  to  begin  with  every  possible  manifestation  of 
nature,  and  try  to  fit  in  every  possible  phase  of  it  with 
-very  related  manifestation.  This  is,  as  we  shall  see 
hereafter,  Dharana.  It  is,  in  plain  language,  to  apply 
ourselves  to  the  investigation  of  all  the  branches  of 
natural  science  one  by  one. 

This  is  the  natural  result  of  curiosity.  By  this 
attempt  to  discover  the  relations  already  existing  or 
possible,  actual  or  potential,  among  the  phenomena  of 
nature,  another  power  is  induced  in  the  mind.  This 
power  Patanjali  calls  Yichara,  meditation.  The  radi 
cal  idea  of  the  word  is  to  go  among  the  various  rela 
tions  of  the  portions  that  make  up  the  whole  subject 
of  our  contemplation.  It  is  only  a  deeper  hold  on  the 
mind  of  the  philosophical  curiosity  noticed  above. 


The  third  state  of  this  Samadhi  is  what  is  called 
Ananda,  liappiness  or  bliss.  As  long  as  there  is 
curiosity  or  meditation,  the  mind  is  only  assuming  the 
consistency  of  the  soul.  This  means  to  say  that  the 
vibrations  of  the  soul  are  as  yet  only  making  way  into 
the  mind,  they  have  not  yet  succeeded  entirely.  When, 
however,  the  third  stage  is  arrived  at,  the  mind  is 
sufficiently  polished  to  receive  the  full  and  clear  image 
of  the  sixth  coil.  This  image  presents  itself  to  the 
mind  as  bliss.  Every  man  who  has  devoted  himself 
to  the  study  of  nature  has  been,  for  however  short  a 
time,  in  that  coveted  state.  It  is  very  difficult  to  make 
it  intelligible  by  description,  but  I  am  sure  that  the 
majority  of  my  readers  are  not  strangers  to  it. 

But  whence  does  this  bliss  come?  What  is  it?  I 
have  called  it  a  reflection  of  the  soul.  But  first  of 
all,  what  is  the  soul?  From  what  I  have  been  writing 
up  to  this  time,  my  readers  will  no  doubt  surmise  that 
I  understand  the  soul  to  be  only  a  picture  of  the  gross 
body,  the  Prana,  and  the  mind,  so  far  only,  however, 
as  its  constitution  is  concerned. 

I  have  mentioned  that  in  the  macrocosm  the  sun 
is  the  centre,  and  the  Prana  is  the  atmosphere  of  the 
second  principle,  and  that  the  ecliptic  marks  the  shape 
of  this  principle.  I  have  also  mentioned  that  the 
individual  human  principle  is  only  a  picture  of  this 
macrocosmic  whole.  I  have  mentioned  again  that  in 
the  macrocosm  Virat  is  the  centre  and  Mann  the 
atmosphere  of  the  second  principle.  This  atmosphere 
is  made  of  the  five  universal  Tattvas,  just  like  Prana, 

YOGA -  — THK    SOUL.  153 

the  only  difference  being  that  the  mental  Tattvas 
undergo  a  greater  number  of  vibrations  per  second 
than  the  Tattvas  of  Prana.  I  have  also  said  that 
the  individual  mind  is  an  exact  picture — the  aspect  of 
course  differing  with  the  surroundings  of  time,  just  as 
in  the  case  of  Prana — of  the  macrocosmic  mind. 

Now  I  have  to  say  the  same  with  regard  to  the  soul. 
In  the  macrocosm  there  is  Brahma,  for  the  centre,  and 
Yijnana  for  the  atmosphere  of  this  principle.  As  the 
earth  moves  in  Prana,  as  the  sun  breathes  in  Mann, 
as  the  Manu  (or  Virat)  breathes  in  Vijnana,  so  the 
soul  breathes  in  the  highest  atmosphere  of  Ananda. 
Brahma  is  the  centre  of  spiritual  life,  as  the  sun  is 
the  centre  of  Prana,  and  Virat  the  centre  of  mental  life. 
These  centres  are  similar  in  luminosity  to  the  sun, 
but  ordinary  senses  cannot  perceive  them,  because  the 
number  of  tattvic  vibrations  per  second  is  beyond 
their  power. 

The  soul  of  the  universe  (the  Vijnanamaya  Kosha), 
with  Brahma  for  its  centre,  is  our  psychic  ideal. 

The  tattvic  currents  of  this  sphere  extend  over  what 
we  call  a  Brahmanda.  This  they  do  in  a  way  similar 
to  the  tattvic  rays  of  Prana  with  which  we  are  familiar 
through  the  medium  of  gross  matter.  This  centre 
with  this  universe  forms  the  self-conscious  universe. 
In  the  bosom  of  this  atmosphere  exist  all  the  lower 

Under  the  influence  of  gross  matter  the  mental 
macrocosm  registers  the  external  pictures,  that  is  to 
say,  it  gains  the  power  of  manifesting  itself  in  the 


five  ways  I  have   described    in   the   essay  on    mind. 
Under  the  Brahma,  however,  the  mental  macrocosm 
(Mann)  attains  the  higher  powers  under  discussion. 
This  double  influence  changes,  after  a  time,  the  nature 
of   Manu  himself.      The  universe  has,  as  it  were,  a 
new  mind  after  every  Manvantara.      This  change  is 
always  for  the  better.     The  mind  is  ever  spiritualizing. 
The  later  the  Manu  the  more  spiritual.     A  time  will 
come  when  the   present  macrocosmic   mind  will   be 
entirely  absorbed  in  the  soul.     The  same  is  the  case 
with  the  microcosm  of   man.      Thus  Brahma  is  by 
nature  omniscient.      He  is  conscious  of  a  self.     The 
types  of  everything  that  was  or  is  to  be  in  process  of 
time  are  but  so  many  varying   compositions  of  his 
Tattvas.     Every  phase  of  the  universe,  with  its  ante 
cedents  and  consequents,  is  in  him.     It  is  himself,  his 
own  self-consciousness.     One  mind  is  absorbed  in  him 
in  the  space  of  fourteen  Manvantaras.     The  motion 
of  the  mental  Tattvas  is  so  much  accelerated  that 
they  become  spiritual.      By  the  time  that  this  takes 
place  in  the  universe  the  vibrations  of  the  Tattvas  of 
Prana  are  being  accelerated,  too,  under  the  influence 
of    Manu   until   the  Prana  itself   is  turned  into  the 
Manu  of  the  next  period.     And,  again,  while  this  is 
being  done,  the  gross  matter  is  similarly  developing 
itself  into  Prana. 

This  is  the  process  of  involution,  but  for  the  present 
let  us  leave  it  here  and  resume  the  subject  in  hand. 

The  human  soul  is  an  exact  picture  of  this  macro- 
cosmic  principle.     It  is  omniscient  like  its  prototype, 

YOGA — THE    SOUL.  155 

and  has  the  same  constitution.  But  the  omniscience 
of  the  human  soul  is  still  latent  on  account  of  her  for- 
getfulness.  The  sixth  principle  (absolute)  has  only 
developed  a  little.  Humanity  in  general  has  only  a 
very  dim  notion  of  infinity,  of  Godhead,  and  of  all 
such  subjects.  This  means  that  the  rays  of  the  in 
finite  at  this  stage  of  our  progress  are  only  just 
evoking  our  sixth  principle  into  active  life.  When  in 
process  of  time  the  rays  of  the  infinite  gather  suffi 
cient  strength  our  soul  will  come  out  in  her  true 
light.  We  might  accelerate  this  process  by  Yairagya 
(apathy),  which,  as  has  been  seen,  gives  strength  to 

The  means  of  strengthening  Yoga  deserve  separate 
consideration.  Some  of  them  help  to  remove  those 
influences  and  forces  which  are  antagonistic  to  pro 
gress,  others,  such  as  the  contemplation  of  the  divine 
principle,  accelerate  the  process  of  the  development  of 
the  human  soul,  and  the  consequent  absorption  of  the 
mind  in  the  soul.  At  present  I  have  simply  to  set 
forth  the  nature  of  the  blissful  Samadhi,  which  I 
spoke  of  as  being  caused  by  the  reflection  of  the  soul 
in  the  mind. 

This  reflection  simply  means  the  assumption  by  the 
mind  of  the  state  of  the  soul.  The  mind  passes  from 
its  own  ordinary  state  to  the  state  of  the  higher  energy 
of  the  soul.  The  greater  number  of  tattvic  vibra 
tions  per  second  make  their  way  in  the  matter  of  a 
lower  number  of  tattvic  vibrations  per  second.  This 
rising  up  of  the  mind,  this  passing  out  of  itself,  the 


English  language  recognizes  by  the  name  of  elation, 
and  this  is  the  meaning  of  the  word  Ananda  as  quali 
fying  the  third  state  of  the  Samprajriata  Samtidhi. 
The  Anandamaya  Kosha  takes  its  name  from  its 
being  the  state  of  the  highest  elation.  Every  moment 
of  Ananda  is  a  step  towards  the  absorption  of  the 
mind,  and  by  constant  scientific  meditation  the  mind 
as  it  were  changes  its  nature,  passing  for  ever  into  a 
higher  state  of  consistency.  That  state  which  in 
Ananda  only  appeared  in  the  moment  of  triumph  now 
becomes  part  and  parcel  of  the  mind.  This  confirma 
tion  of  the  higher  energy  is  known  by  the  name  of 
Asmita,  which  may  be  translated  (as  it  generally  is) 
by  the  word  egoism,  but  must  be  understood  as  the 
identification  of  the  consciousness  with  self. 

The  object  in  view  in  this  essay  is  to  mark  the 
stages  along  the  road  of  mental  matter  to  its  final 
absorption  in  the  soul.  In  the  last  sentences  I  brought 
the  mind  to  the  state  of  Samprajnata  Samadhi.  It  is 
in  this  state  that  the  mind  acquires  the  power  of  dis 
covering  new  truths,  and  seeing  new  combinations  of 
things  existent.  As  this  state  has  been  attained  in 
the  long  cycles  of  bygone  ages,  man  has  acquired  a 
knowledge  of  science  to  its  present  stage  of  develop 
ment,  and  the  attainment  of  this  quantum  of  know 
ledge  has  been  the  means  (in  the  manner  traced) 
whereby  our  minds  have  been  raised  to  our  present 
pitch  of  perfection,  when  we  have  learned  to  say  that 
these  great  powers  are  native  to  the  human  mind.  As 
I  have  shown,  these  powers  have  become  native  to 


the  mind  only  after  long  submission  of  the  mind  to 
the  influence  of  the  soul. 

By  the  constant  exercise  of  this  Samadhi  the  mind 
learns  to  incline  towards  those  cosmic  influences  that 
are  in  their  very  nature  antagonistic  to  those  evil 
powers  of  our  constitution  which  check  our  progress. 
These  powers  tend  naturally  to  die  out.  The  ultimate 
goal  of  this  path  is  that  state  of  mind  when  its  mani 
festations  become  entirely  potential.  The  soul,  if  she 
pleases,  may  propel  them  by  her  inherent  power  into 
the  domain  of  the  actual,  but  they  lose  all  power  to 
draw  the  soul  after  them. 

When  this  state  is  reached,  or  when  it  is  about  to 
be  reached,  certain  powers  begin  to  show  themselves 
in  the  mind,  which  in  the  present  cycle  are  by  no 
means  common.  This  state  is  technically  called  Para- 
vairagya,  or  the  higher  apathy. 

The  word  Vairagya  is  usually  rendered  into  English 
as  apathy,  and  is  looked  upon  by  modern  thinkers 
with  disfavour.  This,  I  believe,  is  partly  owing  to  a 
misconception  of  the  meaning  of  the  word.  It  is 
generally  understood,  I  believe,  that  misanthropy  is 
the  only  indication,  or  perhaps  the  highest  perfection, 
of  this  mental  state.  Nothing  can  be  further  from 
the  intention  of  those  sages  who  put  Vairagya  down 
as  the  highest  means  of  the  attainment  of  bliss. 
Vairagya  or  apathy  is  defined  by  Vyasa  in  his  com 
mentary  on  the  ApJiorisms  of  Yoga  as  the  "final  state 
of  perfected  knowledge."  It  is  that  state  in  which 
the  mind,  coming  to  know  the  real  nature  of  things, 


will  no  longer  be  deluded  into  false  pleasure  by  the 
manifestations  of  Avidya.  When  this  upward  incli 
nation  becomes  confirmed,  when  this  habit  of  soaring 
towards  the  divine  becomes  second  nature,  the  name 
of  Paravairagya  is  given  to  the  complementary  mental 

This  state  is  reached  in  many  ways,  and  the  road  is 
marked  by  many  clearly  defined  stages.  One  way  is 
the  practice  of  Samprajiiata  Samadhi.  By  the  con 
stant  practice  of  this  Samadhi,  to  which  the  mind 
runs  of  itself  when  once  it  tastes  the  bliss  of  the 
fourth  stage  of  that  state,  the  mind  is  habituated  to  a 
state  of  faith  in  the  efficacy  of  the  pursuit.  This 
faith  is  nothing  more  than  a  state  of  mental  lucidity 
in  which  the  yet  unknown  truths  of  nature  begin  to 
throw  their  shadows  forward.  The  mind  begins,  as  it 
were,  to  feel  truth  in  any  and  ever}7  place,  and,  drawn 
by  the  taste  of  bliss  (Ananda),  proceeds  with  greater 
and  greater  zeal  to  work  out  the  process  of  its  evolution. 
This  faith,  I  may  remark,  has  been  called  by  Patanjali 
Shraddha,  and  the  consequent  zeal  of  which  I  have 
spoken,  he  names  Virya. 

Confirmed  in  this  zeal  and  working  on,  the  mani 
festation  of  memory  comes  in  naturally.*  This  is  a 
state  of  high  evolution.  Every  truth  comes  to  be 
present  before  the  mind's  eye  at  the  slightest  thought, 
and  the  four  stages  of  Samadhi  make  their  appearance 
again  and  again  till  the  mind  becomes  very  nearly  a 
mirror  of  Nature. 

*  I  may  refer  the  reader  to  my  analysis  of  memory. 

YOGA — THE   SOFT..  159 

This  corresponds  to  the  state  of  Paravairagya,  which 
would  in  the  second  place  be  also  attained  by  the  con 
templation  of  the  high  prototype  of  the  soul.  This  is 
the  macrocosmic  soul,  the  Ishvara  of  Patanjali,  which 
remains  for  ever  in  that  entity's  soul  of  pristine  purity. 
It  is  this  Ishvara  of  which  I  have  spoken  as  the  self- 
conscious  universe. 

This  Ishvara,  as  I  conceive  it,  is  only  a  macrocosmic 
centre,  similar  in  nature  to,  though  higher  in  function 
than,  the  sun. 

As  the  sun  with  his  ocean  of  Prana  is  the  prototype 
of  our  life-principle — Pranamaya  Kosha — so  Ishvara  is 
the  great  prototype  of  our  souls.  What  is  the  sixth 
principle  if  not  a  phase  of  the  existence  of  this  great 
being  prolonged  as  a  separate  phase  into  the  lower 
principles,  yet  destined  again  to  merge  into  its  own 
true  self?  Just  as  I  have  shown  that  the  principles  of 
life  live  in  the  sun  after  our  terrestrial  death,  to  recur 
again  and  again  into  actual  life,  so  in  a  similar  way 
does  the  soul  live  in  the  Ishvara.  We  may  if  we 
please  look  upon  this  entity  as  being  the  group  of  all 
the  liberated  souls,  but  we  must  at  the  same  time 
remember  that  the  unliberated  souls  too  are  his  un 
developed  reflections,  destined  in  the  long  run  to 
attain  their  original  state.  It  is  therefore  necessary  to 
assume  the  independent  existence  of  Ishvara,  and,  in 
Ishvara,  of  other  souls. 

This  macrocosmic  psychic  centre,  this  ideal  of  the 
sixth  principle  in  man,  is  the  great  reservoir  of  every 
actual  force  in  the  universe.  This  is  the  true  type  of 


the  perfection  of  the  human  soul.  The  incidents  of 
mental  and  physical  existence  which,  however  perfect 
in  themselves,  are  mere  imperfections,  find  no  place 
in  this  centre.  In  this  state  there  is  no  misery  (the 
five  comprehensive  miseries  of  Patanjali  are  enume 
rated  above),  for  misery  can  arise  only  in  the  retro 
grade  process  of  the  first  awakening  of  the  mind, 
being  only  caused  by  sensation,  and  the  inability  of 
the  human  sixth  principle  to  draw  the  mind  towards 
itself  and  out  of  the  domain  of  the  senses,  to  make 
it,  so  to  say,  what  its  prototype  originally  is,  the  rod 
of  dominion,  and  not  as  sensation  has  made  it,  the 
instrument  of  slavery. 

By  this  contemplation  of  the  sixth  principle  of  the 
universe,  a  sympathy  is  naturally  established  between 
it  and  the  human  soul.  That  sympathy  is  only 
necessary  for  the  universal  tattvic  law  to  work  with 
greater  effect.  The  human  soul  begins  to  be  cleansed 
of  the  dust  of  the  world,  and  in  its  turn  affects  the 
mind  in  a  similar  way,  and  therein  the  Yogi  becomes 
conscious  of  this  influence  by  the  slackening  of  the 
fetters  forged  by  Prakriti,  and  a  daily,  hourly  streng 
thening  of  heavenward  aspirations. 

The  human  soul  then  begins  to  become  a  centre  of 
power  for  its  own  little  universe,  just  as  Ishvara  is  the 
centre  of  power  in  his  universe.  The  microcosm  then 
becomes  a  perfect  little  picture  of  the  macrocosm. 
When  perfection  is  attained,  all  the  mental  and  physio 
logical  Tattvas  of  the  microcosm,  and  to  a  certain 
extent  of  the  surrounding  world,  become  the  slaves 


of  the  soul.  Whithersoever  it  may  incline,  the  Tattva<; 
are  at  its  back.  He  may  will,  and  the  atmospheric 
\  ayu  Tattva,  with  whatever  amount  of  slrencnh  he 
pleases  or  is  capable  of  concentrating,  will  set  in  motion 
any  piece  of  furniture  within  the  reach  of  his  will. 
2  may  will,  and  at  the  instant  the  Apas  Tattva  will 
slake  thirst,  cure  fever,  or,  in  fact,  wash  off  the  o-erms 
of  any  disease  he  desires.  He  may  will,  and,  in  fine 
any  and  every  Tattva  on  any  of  the  lower  planes  will 
do  its  work  for  him.  These  high  powcrs  do  not 
to  appear  all  of  a  sudden,  but  show  themselves 
gradually,  and,  of  course,  according  to  special  aptitudes 
in  special  forms. 

But  a  description  of  these  powers  is  not  mv  present 
business.  My  only  purpose  so  far  is  to  show  in  what 
way,  according  to  the  universal  law  of  nature,  the 
human  soul,  by  contemplation  of  the  macrocosmic 
:th  principle,  becomes  the  means  for  the  mind  at 
taining  the  state  called  Paravairagya.  The  laws  of 
the  working  of  these  high  powers  may  make  the  sub 
ject  of  some  future  attempt. 

Besides  these  two,  the  author  of  the  Aphorisms  of 
Yoga  enumerates  five  more  ways  in  which'  the  minds 
of  those  who  by  the  power  of  previous  Karma  are 
already  inclined  towards  the  divine,  are  seen  to  work 
their  way  to  the  state  under  discussion. 

The  first  way  is  the  habituating  of  the  mind  to  th 
manifestations  of  pleasure,  sympathy,  elation,  and  pity 
toward  the  comfortable,  the  miserable,  and  the  vicious. 
Every  good  man  will  tell  us  that  the  manifestation  of 


joy  at  the  comfort  of  another  is  a  high  virtue.  Why, 
what  harm  is  there  in  jealousy?  I  think  that  no  other 
science  except  the  philosophy  of  the  Tattvas  explains 
with  any  amount  of  satisfaction  the  reason  of  such 

We  have  seen  that  in  a  state  of  enjoyment,  comfort, 
pleasure,  satisfaction,  and  the  like,  the  Prithivi  or  the 
Apas  Tattva  prevails  in  the  Prana  and  the  mind.  It 
is  evident  that  if  we  put  our  minds  in  the  same,  we 
induce  either  of  the  two  Tattvas  into  our  life  and 
mental  principles.  What  will  be  the  result?  A  pro 
cess  of  purification  will  set  in.  Both  the  principles 
will  begin  to  be  cleansed  of  any  trace  of  defect  which 
the  excess  of  any  of  the  remaining  Tattvas  may  have 
given  to  our  constitution. 

All  those  physiological  or  mental  causes  which  in 
duce  inattention  in  the  mind  are  removed.  Bodily 
distempers  take  their  leave,  for  they  are  the  result  of 
the  disturbance  of  the  balance  of  the  physiological 
Tattvas,  and  comfort,  pleasure,  and  enjoyment  are 
foreign  to  these.  The  one  induces  the  other  As  the 
balance  of  the  Tattvas  brings  comfort  and  enjoyment 
of  life,  so  the  sense  of  comfort  and  enjoyment  which 
colours  our  Prana  and  mind  when  we  put  ourselves  in 
sympathy  with  the  comfortable,  restores  the  balance 
of  our  Tattvas. 

And  when  the  balance  of  the  Tattvas  is  restored, 
what  remains?  Disinclination  to  work,  doubt,  laziness 
and  other  feelings  of  that  kind  can  no  longer  stand,  and 
the  only  result  is  the  restoration  of  the  mind  to  per- 

YOGA — THR   SOU!,.  163 

feet  calmness.  As  says  Vyasa  in  his  commentary,  the 
White  Law  makes  its  appearance  in  the  mind.  Such 
and  in  a  similar  way  is  the  result  of  the  manifestations 
of  the  other  qualities.  But,  for  such  a  result  to  be 
achieved,  there  must  be  long  and  powerful  application. 
The  next  method  is  Pranayama,  deep  expiration 
and  inspiration.  This  too  conduces  to  the  same  end 
and  in  the  same  way.  The  breathing  of  deep  breaths 
in  and  out  has  to  some  extent  the  same  effect  as  run 
ning-  and  other  hard  exercise.  The  heat  that  is  pro 
duced  burns  out  certain  elements  of  disease,  which  it 
is  desirable  should  be  burnt.  But  the  practice  in  its 
effects  differs  for  the  better  from  hard  exercise.  In 
hard  exercise  the  Sushumna  begins  to  play,  and  that 
is  not  good  for  physiological  health.  Pranayama, 
however,  if  properly  performed,  is  beneficial  from  a 
physiological  as  well  as  from  a  mental  point  of  view. 
The  first  effect  that  is  produced  in  Pranayama  is  the 
general  prevalence  of  the  Prithivi  Tattva.  It  is  un 
necessary  to  remind  the  reader  that  the  Apas  Tattva 
carries  the  breath  lowest  down,  and  that  the  Prithivi 
is  the  next.  In  our  attempt  to  draw  deeper  breaths 
than  usual,  the  Prithivi  Tattva  cannot  but  be  intro 
duced,  and  the  general  prevalence  of  this  Tattva,  with 
the  consequent  golden  tinge  of  the  circle  of  light 
round  our  heads,  can  never  fail  to  cause  fixity  of  pur 
pose  and  strength  of  attention.  The  Apas  Tattva 
next  comes  in.  This  is  the  silvery  hue  of  innocence 
which  encircles  the  head  of  a  saint  and  marks  the 
attainment  of  the  state  of  Paravairagya. 


The  next  is  the  attainment  of  the  twofold  lucidity 
—the  sensuous  and  the  cardiac.  The  sensuous  luci 
dity  is  the  power  of  the  senses  to  perceive  the  changes 
of  Prana.  The  previously  trained  attention,  accord 
ing  to  special  aptitudes,  is  centred  on  any  one  or 
more  of  the  five  senses.  If  centred  in  the  eyes,  one 
can  see  the  physiological  and  atmospheric  colours  of 
Prana.  I  can  affirm  this  by  personal  experience.  I 
can  see  the  various  colours  of  the  seasons.  I  can  see 
rain  coming  an  hour,  two  hours,  and  sometimes  even 
two  days  before  an  actual  shower.  Bright  sheets  of 
the  green  washed  into  coolness  and  purity  by  the  white 
make  their  appearance  anywhere  about  me — in  the 
room,  in  the  heavens,  on  the  table  before  me,  on  the 
wall  in  front.  When  this  happens,  I  am  sure  that 
rain  is  in  the  air,  and  to  come  down  shortly.  If  the 
green  is  streaked  with  red,  it  takes  some  time  to  come, 
but  it  is  surely  preparing. 

These  remarks  are  enough  for  colour.  The  power 
can  be  made  to  show  itself  by  a  sustained  attempt  to 
look  into  space,  or  anything  else,  as  the  moon,  a  star, 
a  jewel  and  so  on.  The  remaining  four  senses  too 
attain  similar  powers,  and  sounds,  smells,  tastes,  and 
touches  which  ordinary  humanity  cannot  perceive 
begin  to  be  perceived  by  the  Yogi. 

The  cardiac  lucidity  is  the  power  of  the  mind  to 
feel  and  also  that  of  the  senses  to  perceive  thoughts. 
In  a  previous  essay  (p.  43)  I  have  given  a  chart  of  the 
head,  specifying  the  places  and  giving  the  colours  of 
the  various  kinds  of  mental  manifesto/  ions.  These 

YOGA— THE   SOUL.  165 

colours  are  seen  by  anyone  \vlio  lias  or  acquires  the 
power,  and  they  constitute  the  surest  book  to  read  the 
thoughts  of  any  man  in.  By  sustained  practice  one 
will  recognize  the  finest  shades. 

One  can  also  feel  these  thoughts.  The  modifica 
tions  of  thought  moving  along  the  universal  tattvic 
"wires"  affect  any  and  every  man.  They  impart  each 
a  distinct  impulse  to  the  Pranamaya  Kosha,  and  thus 
a  distinguishable  impulse  to  the  throbs  of  the  brain 
and  the  more  easily  perceivable  throbs  of  the  heart. 
A  man  who  studies  these  throbs  of  the  heart  and  sits 
with  his  attention  centred  in  the  heart  (while  it  is 
of  course  open  to  every  influence)  learns  to  feel  every 
influence  there.  The  effect  on  the  heart  of  the  mental 
modifications  of  other  pecple  is  a  fact  which,  so  far  as 
quality  is  concerned,  may  be  verified  by  the  commonest 

This  sensuous  or  cardiac  lucidity,  as  the  case  may  be, 
once  attained,  kills  scepticism,  and  in  the  end  conduces 
to  the  state  of  Paravairagya. 

In  the  next  place,  says  Patanjali,  one  may  rely  upon 
the  knowledge  obtainable  through  dreams  and  sleep. 

The  five  ethereal  currents  of  sensation  are  focussed 
in  the  brain,  and  from  these  five  centres  of  force 
motion  is  transmitted  to  the  mental  principle.  These 
various  foci  serve  as  connecting  links  between  the 
mental  and  the  life  principles.  The  visual  currents 
produce  in  the  mind  the  capability  of  becoming  con 
scious  of  colour.  In  other  words,  they  produce  eyes  in 
the  mind.  Similarly  does  the  mind  develop  the  faculty 


of  receiving  the  impressions  of  the  four  remaining 
sensations.      This   faculty  is   acquired   after  the  ex 
posure  of  ages.     Cycles  upon  cycles  pass  on,  and  the 
mind   is   not   yet   capable  of  receiving  these  tattvic 
vibrations.      The  wave  of  life   begins  its  organized 
journey  upon  earth  with  vegetable  forms.     From  that 
time  external  tattvic  currents  begin  to  affect  the  vege 
table  organism,  and    this  is  the  beginning  of  what 
we  call  sensation.     The  modifications  of  the  external 
Tattvas  through  the  individualized  vegetable  life  strike 
the  chords  of  the   latent  mind,  but   it  will   not  yet 
respond.     It  is  not  in  sympathy.     Higher  and  higher 
through  vegetable  forms  the  life-wave  travels;  greater 
and   greater  is  the   force  with  which   it  strikes  the 
mental  chords,  and  better  and  better  is  the  capability 
of  that  principle  to  respond  to  the  tattvic  calls  of  life. 
When  we   reach    the   animal   kingdom    the  external 
tattvic  foci  are  just  visible.     These  are  the  sensuous 
organs,  each  of  which  has  the  capability  of  focussing 
in  itself  its  own  peculiar  tattvic  rays.     In  the  lowest 
forms  of  animal  life  they  are  just  visible,  and  this  is  a 
sign  that  the  mental  principle  is  then  in  a  compara 
tively  high  state  of  perfection;  it  has  somewhat  begun 
to  respond  to  the  external  tattvic  call.     It  may  be  re 
marked  here  that  this  is  the  superposed  relative  mind, 
and  not  the  absolute  original  mental  Truti,  of  both 
of  which  I  have  spoken  in  a  former  essay.     It  is  the 
uprising  of  this  evolutionary  finite  structure  on  all 
planes  of  life  that  has  led  a  German  philosopher  to 
the  conclusion  that  God  is  becoming.    This  is  of  course 

YOGA — THK   SOU!..  ib/ 

true,  but  it  is  only  true  of  the  finite  universe  of  names 
and  forms  and  not  of  the  absolute  towards  which  it  is 

To  resume.  Longer  and  longer  is  now  the  expo 
sure  of  this  animal  life  to  the  external  Tattvas; 
greater  and  greater  every  day  is  the  strength  of  these 
in  their  various  foci;  higher  and  higher  is  the  forma 
tion  of  these  foci ;  stronger  and  stronger  is  the  exter 
nal  call  upon  the  mind,  and  more  and  more  perfect 
is  the  mental  response.  A  time  comes  in  the  progress 
of  this  evolution  when  the  five  mental  senses  are 
perfectly  developed,  as  is  marked  by  the  development 
of  the  external  senses.  The  action  of  the  five  mental 
senses  we  call  the  phenomenon  of  perception.  On 
the  manifestation  of  this  perception  is  raised  the 
mighty  fabric  of  those  mental  manifestations  which 
I  have  tried  to  discuss  in  the  essay  on  mind.  The 
way  in  which  this  evolution  takes  place  is  sketched 
there,  too. 

The  external  Tattvas  of  gross  matter  create  gross 
foci  in  a  gross  body  why. nee  to  send  their  currents. 
The  soul  does  the  same.  The  iattvic  currents  of  the 
external  soul — Ishvara — create  similar  centres  of  action 
in  connection  with  the  mind.  But  the  tattvic  vibra 
tions  of  the  soul  are  finer  than  those  of  the  life- 
principle.  The  mental  matter  takes  longer  time  to 
respond  to  the  call  of  Ishvara  than  it  does  to  answer 
to  the  call  of  Prana.  It  is  not  till  the  life-wave 
reaches  humanity  that  the  vibrations  of  the  soul 
begin  to  show  themselves  in  the  mind.  The  foci  of 


psychic  currents  are  located  in  what  is  called  the 
Vijrianamaya  Kosha — the  psychic  coil.  At  the  time 
of  the  beginning  of  human  life,  the  psychic  foci  are 
in  that  same  state  of  perfection  as  are  the  animal 
foci — the  senses,  at  the  time  when  the  life-wave  begins 
its  journey  in  the  animal  species.  These  psychic  foci 
go  on  gaining  strength,  race  after  race,  till  we  reach 
the  point  which  I  have  called  the  awakening  of  the 
soul.  That  process  ends  in  the  confirmation  of  the 
state  of  Paravairagya.  From  this  state  there  are  only 
a  few  steps  to  the  power  of  what  has  been  called  ulterior 
or  psychic  perception.  Our  former  perception  we  may 
now  call  animal  perception.  And  just  as  on  the  basis 
of  animal  perception  has  been  raised  the  mighty  fabric 
of  inference  and  verbal  authority,  so  also  may  be  raised 
(as  indeed  it  has  been  by  ancient  Aryan  -:ages)  a  more 
mighty  fabric  of  inference  and  verbal  authority  on  the 
basis  of  psychic  perception.  We  shall  come  to  that  by 
and  by.  In  the  meantime,  let  us  resume  our  subject 
from  the  point  at  which  we  left  it. 

As  practice  confirms  in  th.e  Yogi's  mind  the  state  of 
Paravairagya,  it  attains  the  most  perfect  calm.  It  is 
open  to  all  sorts  of  tattvic  influences,  but  without  any 
sensuous  disturbance.  The  next  power  that  conse 
quently  shows  itself  is  called  Samapatti.  I  shall 
translate  this  word  by  the  term  intuition,  and  define 
it  as  that  mental  state  in  which  it  becomes  possible  to 
receive  the  reflection  of  the  subjective  and  the  objective 
worlds;  it  is  the  means  of  knowledge  at  the  slightest 
motion  in  whatever  manner  imparted. 

YOGA — THE    SOUL.  169 

Intuition  has  four  stages. 

1.  Sa-vitarka — verbal. 

2.  Nir-vitarka — wordless. 

3.  Sa-vichara — meditative. 

4.  Nir-vichara — ultra-meditative. 

The  state  of  intuition  has  been  likened  to  a  bright, 
pure,  transparent,  colourless  crystal.  View  through 
the  crystal  whatever  object  you  will  and  it  will  most 
readily  show  in  itself  the  colour  of  that  object.  And 
so  does  the  mind  behave  in  this  state.  Let  fall  on  it 
the  tattvic  rays  which  constitute  the  objective  world, 
it  shows  itself  in  the  colours  of  i'ie  objective  world. 
Let  those  colours  be  removed,  it  is  again  as  pure  as 
crystal,  ready  to  show  in  itself  any  other  colours  that 
may  be  presented  to  it.  Think  of  the  elementary 
forces  of  nature — the  Tattvas;  think  of  the  gross 
objects  where  they  work;  think  of  the  organs  of 
sense,  their  genesis,  and  the  method  of  their  work; 
think  of  the  soul — liberated  or  bound,  and  the  mind 
readily  falls  into  each  of  these  states.  It  retains  no 
particular  colour  which  may  oppose  or  vitiate  any 
other  colour  entering  it.  The  first  stage  of  intuition 
is  the  verbal.  It  is  the  most  common  in  this  age  and 
therefore  the  most  easily  intelligible.  Let  the  reader 
think  of  a  mind  in  which  no  colour  is  evoked  at  the 
sound  of  scientific  words.  Let  him  think  of  thou 
sands  of  those  iiKii  in  whose  minds  the  sounds  of 
their  own  language  full  of  high  and  great  ideas  is  as 
strange  to  them  as  Hebrew  is  to  the  Maori.  Take  an 
uneducated  Knglish  peasant  and  read  to  him  Cuuius 


or  77^6-  Tempest.  Do  you  think  those  beautiful  words 
will  carry  to  him  all  they  are  intended  to  convey?  But 
why  an  uneducated  peasant?  Did  the  great  Johnson 
himself  understand  the  beauties  of  Milton?  Take 
asrain  a  common  schoolboy,  and  read  to  him  in  his 

o  *    ' 

own  language  the  truths  of  philosophy.  Does  that 
language,  even  if  you  give  him  its  dictionary  mean 
ing,  convey  any  idea  to  his  mind?  Take  the  Upani- 
shads,  and  read  them  to  any  pandit  who  can  under 
stand  Sanskrit  grammatically  and  lexicographically 
tolerably  well.  Does  anyone  doubt — I  do  not — that 
he  does  not  understand  all  that  those  noble  words 
convey?  With  such  a  mind,  let  him  compare  the 
mind  of  a  really  educated  man,  a  mind  which  almost 
intuitively,  as  it  were,  takes  in  the  true  sense  of  words, 
which  is  not  an  easy  task  even  for  the  highly  edu 
cated,  for  prejudice,  deep-seated  antagonistic  theories, 
the  strength  of  one's  own  convictions,  and  perhaps 
some  other  characteristics  of  the  mind,  prove  an  in 
surmountable  obstacle.  This  comparison  will  show 
that  intuition  is  something  more  than  a  mere  sharpen 
ing  of  the  intellect.  It  is  rather  the  light  that  is  at 
the  back  of  everything  shining  into  and  through 
the  intellect  which  has  been  purged  from  all  opaque 
obstacles,  the  densest  of  which  is  a  deeply-rooted  and 
antagonistic  scepticism.  Even  a  John  Stuart  Mill 
could  not  properly  understand  the  philosophy  of  Sir 
William  Hamilton.  One  of  the  greatest  Oriental 
scholars  says  that  Patanjali's  system  is  no  philosophy 
at  all!  Another  has  expressed  himself  to  the  effect 


that  Patanjali's  Aphorisms  on  Yoga  are  mere  fanati- 
cism!  There  are  main-  Tantras  of  which,  though  we 
might  translate  them  verbally  into  another  language, 
very  few  of  us  really  know  the  meaning.  This  is  a 
very  grave  shortcoming,  and  sometimes  much  to  be 
regretted.  It  disappears  only  with  the  manifestation 
of  verbal  intuition.  In  this  state  the  Yogi  is  at  once  en 
rapport  \\\\\\  the  author  of  the  book,  and  this  is  because 
his  mind  is  free  from  every  blinding  prejudice,  and  is, 
in  fact,  a  pure,  bright,  colourless  crystal,  ready  to  show 
any  phase  of  colour  that  may  come  in  contact  with  it. 

The  next  stage  of  intuition  is  the  wordless.  In  this 
you  no  longer  stand  in  need  of  books  to  initiate  your 
self  into  the  secrets  of  nature.  Your  mind  becomes 
capable  of  deriving  these  truths  from  their  fountain- 
head — the  true  pictures  of  everything  in  every  state  of 
the  objective  world  which  are  represented  through  the 
agency  of  Prana  in  the  universal  mind — pictures  which 
are  the  souls  of  these  things,  their  own  true  selves  and 
pregnant  with  every  state  into  which  the}'  have  passed, 
or  have  to  pass — the  realities  of  the  various  and  vary 
ing  phases  of  the  phenomenal  world — the  characteristic 
qualities  of  things. 

These  states  have  for  their  object  the  gross  pheno 
menal  world.  The  next  t\vo  stages  of  intuition  have 
for  their  object  the  world  of  forces — the  world  of  subtle 
bodies  which  lies  at  the  root  of  the  changes  of  the 
gross  world.  The  meditative  intuition  has  for  its 
object  only  the  present  manifestation  of  the  currents  of 
the  subtle  bodv — the  forces  which  are  already  showing 


or  going  to  show  themselves.  In  this  state,  for  ex 
ample,  the  Yogi  knows  intuitively  the  present  forces 
of  the  atmospheric  Prana  as  they  are  gathering 
strength  enough  to  give  us  a  shower  of  rain  or  hail, 
snow  or  hoarfrost,  but  he  does  not  know  what  has 
given  them  their  present  activity,  or  whether  the 
potential  will  ever  become  the  actual,  and  if  so,  to 
what  extent.  He  knows  the  forces  that  are  work 
ing  at  the  present  moment  in  that  tree,  that  horse, 
that  man ;  he  knows  the  powers  that  keep  these  things 
in  the  state  they  are  in,  but  he  does  not  know  the 
antecedents  and  consequents  of  that  state. 

The  next  has  for  its  object  all  the  three  states  of 
subtle  bodies.  The  present  state  is  of  course  known, 
but  with  it  the  Yogi  combines  the  whole  history  of  the 
object  from  beginning  to  end.  Place  before  him  that 
rose,  and  he  knows  its  subtle  principle  in  all  its  states, 
antecedent  and  consequent.  He  is  familiar  with  the 
little  beginnings  of  the  tree,  and  its  growth  in  various 
states;  he  knows  how  the  budding  began,  he  knows 
how  the  bud  opened  and  how  it  grew  into  that  beau 
tiful  flower.  He  knows  what  will  be  its  end,  how  it 
will  perish,  and  when.  He  knows  at  what  time 
again  the  same  flower  will  energize  gross  matter.  Put 
before  him  a  closed  letter  and  he  knows  not  only  what 
that  letter  contains,  but  can  trace  the  thoughts  to  the 
brain  whence  they  proceeded,  to  the  hand  which  traced 
the  lines,  to  the  room  in  which  they  were  written,  and 
so  on.  It  is  in  this  state  too  that  mind  knows  mind, 
without  the  medium  of  words. 

YOGA — THR   SOUL.  173 

I  hope  I  have  sufficiently  explained  these  four  states. 
They  constitute  what  is  called  the  objective  trance 
(Savija  Samadhi). 

Occasionally  these  powers  show  themselves  in  many 
minds.  But  that  simply  proves  that  the  favoured 
mortal  is  on  the  right  track.  He  must  make  sure  of 
the  point  if  he  would  win. 

When  the  last  stage  of  this  Samadhi  is  confirmed 
in  the  mind,  our  psychic  senses  gain  power  over  that 
amount  of  certain  knowledge  which  is  the  portion  of 
our  animal  senses.  The  authority  of  these  senses  is 
supreme  with  us,  so  far  as  the  gross  world  is  concerned. 
In  a  similar  way  there  is  left  for  us  no  room  to  doubt  the 
truth  of  the  knowledge  which  our  psychic  senses  bring 
us.  This  high  power  of  knowing  every  stipersensuous 
truth  with  perfect  certainty  is  known  as  Ritambhara, 
or  what  I  have  in  English  called  psychic  perception. 

The  knowledge  which  psychic  perception  gives  us 
is  by  no  means  to  be  confounded  with  the  knowledge 


obtained  through  inference,  imagination,  or  the  records 
of  others'  experience. 

Inference,  imagination,  and  verbal  authority,  based 
on  animal  perception,  can  only  work  upon  knowledge 
obtained  through  the  animal  senses.  But  psychic  per 
ception  and  inference  based  upon  it  have  for  their  object 
things  of  the  supersensuous  world,  the  realities  which 
underlie  the  phenomenal  existence  we  are  familiar  with. 
That  perception  takes  in  the  fact  of  the  existence  and 
the  nature  of  Pmkriti  itself,  the  subtlest  state  of  matter, 
just  as  animal  perception  takes  in  gross  matter. 


Animal  perception  draws  the  mind  towards  gross 
matter,  the  world  that  has  given  it  birth.  So  does 
psychic  perception  draw  the  mind  towards  the  soul. 
The  practice  of  objective  Samadhi  destroys  itself. 
The  mind  takes  in  so  much  of  the  higher  energy  of 
the  soul  that  it  loses  its  mental  consistency.  Down 
goes  the  entire  structure  of  unreal  names  and  forms. 
The  soul  lives  in  herself,  and  not  as  now  in  the 

With  this  the  greater  part  of  my  work  is  done.  It 
is  now  clear  that  what  we  call  man  lives  chiefly  in 
the  mind.  The  mind  has  two  entities  to  affect  it. 
The  one  is  the  life-principle,  the  other  the  psychic 
principle — the  one  producing  certain  changes  in  the 
mind  from  below,  the  other  from  above.  These 
changes  have  been  recorded,  and  it  has  been  found 
that  the  dominion  of  the  soul  is  more  desirable  than 
that  of  the  life-principle.  When  the  mind  loses  itself 
entirely  in  the  soul,  man  becomes  God. 

The  object  of  these  essays  has  been  roughly  to  por 
tray  the  nature,  function,  and  mutual  relation  of  the 
principles,  in  other  words,  to  trace  the  operation  of  the 
universal  tat  tine  law  on  all  the  planes  of  existence. 

This  has  been  briefly  done.  A  good  deal  more 
remains  to  be  said  about  the  powers  latent  in  the 
Prana  and  the  mind,  which  show  themselves  in  special 
departments  of  the  progress  of  man.  That  need  not, 
however,  be  entered  on  at  present,  and  therefore  with 
some  description  of  the  first  and  last  principle  of  the 
cosmos — the  spirit — I  close  this  series. 



Tins  is  the  Anandamaya  Kosha,  literally  the  coil  of 
bliss  of  the  Yeduntins.  With  the  power  of  psychic 
perception,  the  soul  knows  the  existence  of  this  entity, 
but  in  the  present  stride  of  human  development  it  has 
hardly  made  its  presence  directly  felt  in  the  human 
constitution.  The  characteristic  difference  between 
the  soul  and  the  spirit  is  the  absence  in  the  latter  of 
the  "/." 

It  is  now  the  dawn  of  the  day  of  evolution.  It  is 
the  first  setting-in  of  the  positive  current  of  the  great 
breath.  It  is  the  first  state  of  cosmic  activity  after  the 
night  of  Malulpralaya.  As  we  have  seen,  the  breath 
in  every  state  of  existence  has  three  differentiations— 
the  positive,  the  negative,  and  the  Sushumna.  The 
Sushumna  is  pregnant  with  cither  of  the  two  remain 
ing  states.  This  is  the  state  which  is  described  in  the 
Parameshthi  Sukta  of  the  7^/V  Veda  as  neither  Sat 
(positive)  nor  Asat  (negative).  This  is  the  primary 
state  of  Parabrahman,  in  which  the  whole  universe 
lies  hidden  like  a  tree  in  the  seed.  As  billows  rise 
and  lose  themselves  in  an  ocean,  the  two  states  of 
evolution  and  involution  take  their  rise  in  this  state, 


and  are  in  due  time  lost  in  the  same.  What  is  Prakriti 
itself  in  this  state  of  potential  omnipotence?  The 
phenomena  of  Prakriti  owe  their  origin  and  existence 
to  the  modifications  of  the  great  breath.  When  that 
great  breath  is  in  the  state  of  Sushumna,  can  we  not  say 
that  Prakriti  itself  is  held  in  that  state  by  Sushumna? 
It  is  in  fact  Parabrahman  that  is  all  in  all.  Prakriti  is 
only  the  shadow  of  that  substance,  and  like  a  shadow 
it  follows  the  modifications  of  the  breath.  The  first 
modification  of  the  great  breath  is  the  setting  in  of  the 
evolutionary  (positive)  current.  In  this  state  Prakriti 
modifies  itself  into  the  ethers  of  the  first  degree,  which 
make  up  the  atmosphere  from  which  Ishvara  draws 
life.  The  subject  (Parabrahman),  whose  breath  causes 
these  prakritic  modifications,  is  in  this  first  state  of 
evolution  known  as  the  Sat,  the  fountain-head  of  all 
existence.  The  /  is  latent  in  this  state  and  naturally 
enough,  because  it  is  differentiation  which  gives  birth 
to  the  /.  But  what  is  this  state?  Must  man  be  anni 
hilated  before  he  reaches  this  state  of  what,  from  the 
standpoint  of  man,  is  called  Nirvana  or  Parinirvana? 
There  is  no  reason  to  suppose  that  it  is  the  state  of 
annihilation  any  more  than  is  the  condition  of  latent 
heat  in  water.  The  simple  fact  is  that  the  colour 
which  constitutes  the  ego  becomes  latent  in  the  spirit's 
higher  form  of  energy.  It  is  a  state  of  consciousness 
or  knowledge  above  self,  certainly  not  destroying  that 

The  individual  spirit  bears  the  same  relation  to  the 
Sat  which  the  individual  soul  bears  to  the  Ishvara,  the 

THE   SPIRIT.  i~- 

individual  mind  to  the  Yirat,  and  the  individual  lifc- 
principle  to  the  Prana.  Kach  centre  is  given  birth 
by  the  tattvic  rays  of  that  degree.  Each  is  a  drop  in 
its  own  ocean.  The  Upanishad  explains  this  state 
under  many  names.  The  Chhdndogya^  however,  has  a 
very  comprehensive  dialogue,  on  this  subject,  between 
Uddalaka  and  his  son  Shvetaketu. 

Professor  Max  Miiller  has  made  some  very  question 
able  remarks  on  certain  assertions  in  this  dialogue, 
calling  them  "more  or  less  fanciful."  These  remarks 
could  never  have  fallen  from  so  learned  a  man  had  he 
known  and  understood  something  of  the  ancient 
Science  of  Breath  and  the  philosophy  of  the  Tattvas. 
The  Upanishads  can  never  be  very  intelligible  without 
this  comprehensive  science.  It  must  be  remembered 
that  the  Upanishads  themselves  have  in  many  places 
clearly  laid  down  that  a  teacher  is  wanted  for  the 
proper  understanding  of  their  divine  words.  Now  the 
teacher  taught  nothing  else  but  the  Science  of  Breath, 
which  is  said  to  be  the  secret  doctrine  of  all  secret 
doctrines.  It  is,  in  fact,  the  key  of  all  that  is  taught 
in  the  Upanishads.  The  little  book  which  these  essays 
try  to  explain  to  the  world  appears,  from  its  very 
arrangement,  to  be  a  compilation  of  various  couplets 
on  the  same  subject  inherited  from  various  esoteric 
circles.  It  is,  in  fact,  as  a  key  to  Aryan  philosophy 
and  occult  science  that  this  handful  of  stanzas  now 
presented  to  the  reader  has  its  chief  value.  But,  ah ! 
I  cannot  hope  that  this  little  book  will  serve  to  dispel 

the  gloom  of  ages. 



To  return,  however,  to  the  dialogue  between  the 
father  and  the  son.  It  is  contained  in  the  sixth 
Prapathaka  of  the  Chhdndogya  Upanishad. 

"'In  the  beginning,  my  dear,  there  was  that  only 
which  is  (TO  oV)  one  only,  without  a  second.  Others 
say  in  the  beginning  there  was  that  only  which  is 
not  (TO  M  oV)  one  only,  without  a  second,  and  from  that 
which  is  not,  that  which  is  was  born.'1' 

This  is  the  translation  of  Professor  Max  Miiller. 
Notwithstanding  the  authority  of  his  great  name,  and 
real  scholarship,  I  venture  to  think  that  the  sense  of 
the  Upanishad  is  totally  lost  sight  of  in  the  translation. 

The  words  of  the  original  are: 

Sad  eva  saumycdamagre  asit. 

I  cannot  find  any  word  in  the  translation  giving  the 
sense  of  the  word  idam  in  the  original.  Ida  in  means 
"this,"  and  it  has  been  explained  as  meaning  the 
phenomenal  world;  this  that  is  perceived,  etc.  The 
real  translation  of  the  text  would  therefore  be: 

This  [world]  was  Sat  alone  in  the  beginning. 

Perhaps  in  the  translation  of  Professor  Max  Miiller, 
the  word  "there"  is  printed  by  mistake  for  "this."  If 
this  is  the  case  the  defect  in  the  translation  is  at  once 

The  text  means  that  the  first  state  of  the  world 
before  differentiation  was  the  state  known  as  Sat. 
From  what  comes  afterwards,  it  appears  that  this  is 
the  state  of  the  universe  in  which  all  its  phenomena — 
material,  mental,  and  psychic — are  held  in  posse.  The 
word  cva,  for  which  the  word  "alone,"  or  "only,"  stands 

TIII-:  SPIRIT.  179 

in  the  translation,  signifies  that  at  the  beginning  of  the 
day  of  evolution  the  universe  had  not  all  five,  or  even 
two  or  more  of  the  five  planes  of  existence  fogctJicr. 
Now  it  has,  but  in  the  beginning  the  Sat  alone 

The  Sat  is  one  only,  without  a  second.  In  these  two 
epithets  there  is  no  qualification  of  time.  The  Sat  is 
one  alone,  and  has  not,  like  Prana,  Yirat,  and  Ishvara, 
(all  three  existing  simultaneously)  a  shadowy  side  of 

The  next  sentence  goes  on  to  say  that  in  the  begin 
ning  there  was  Asat  alone.  As  Professor  Max  Muller 
renders  it:  "There  (?)  was  that  only  which  is  not." 

Now  this  carries  no  meaning,  notwithstanding  the 
Greek  accompaniment  (TO  ^  w).  That  the  word  Asat 
is  used  in  the  sense  of  "that  which  is  not"  or  briefly 
"nothing,"  there  is  no  doubt.  But  that  such  is  not 
the  meaning  of  the  Upanishad  there  is  also  no  doubt. 
The  words  are  used  here  in  the  same  sense  in  which 
they  are  used  in  the  "Nosad  asit"  Hymn  of  the  Rig 

"Then  there  was  neither  the  Sat  nor  the  Asat." 
This  is  of  course  a  state  quite  other  than  the  Sat  of  the 
Upanishad.  It  is  nothing  more  than  the  Sushumna 
of  the  Brahmic  breath.  After  this  in  the  beginning 
of  evolution  the  Brahman  became  Sat.  This  is  the 
positive  evolutionary  potential  phase.  The  Asat  is 
nothing  more  than  the  cooler  negative  life  current, 
which  rules  during  the  night  of  Mahapralaya.  When 
the  shadowy  Prakriti  has  undergone  the  preparatory 


influence  of  the  negative  current,  the  day  of  evolution 
sets  in  with  the  beginning  of  the  positive  current. 
The  dispute  as  to  beginning  is  merely  of  a  technical 
nature.  In  reality  there  is  no  beginning.  It  is  all  a 
motion  in  a  circle,  and  from  this  point  of  view  we 
may  put  whatever  state  we  like  in  the  beginning. 

But,  argues  the  Asat  philosopher,  unless  the  Maya 
undergo  the  preparatory  influence  of  the  Night,  there 
can  be  no  creation.  Hence,  according  to  him,  we 
must  put  the  Asat  in  the  beginning. 

To  this  the  sage  Uddalaka  would  not  consent. 
According  to  him  the  active  impressive  force  is  in  the 
Sat,  the  positive  state,  just  as  all  the  life-forms  take 
their  origin  from  Prana  (the  positive  life-matter)  and 
not  from  Rayi  (the  negative  life-matter).*  It  is  only 
impressibility  that  exists  in  the  Asat,  the  real  names 
and  forms  of  the  phenomenal  universe  do  not  there 
exist.  In  fact  the  name  Sat  has  been  given  to  the 
primary  state  of  the  evolving  universe  for  this  very 
reason.  If  we  would  translate  these  two  words  into 
English  we  would  have  to  coin  two  very  unique  com 

Sat — that-in-which-is. 

Asat — that-in-which-is-not. 

It  is  only  such  a  rendering  that  would  carry  the  true 
idea,  and  hence  it  is  after  all  advisable  to  retain  the 
Sanskrit  words  and  explain  them  as  one  best  may. 

That  actually  existing  state  in  which  the  names  and 
forms  exist  not,  cannot  very  properly  stand  as  the  cause 

*  See  the  Prashnof>anishait. 

THK   SPIRIT,  l8l 

of  the  names  and  forms  which  do  exist.  Hence  the 
Sat  alone  was  in  the  beginning,  etc. 

The  individual  spirit  has  the  same  relation  to  the 
Sat  as  the  soul  has  to  the  Ishvara. 

This  is  enough  to  show  that  there  is  no  annihilation 
anywhere  in  the  universe.  Nirvana  simply  means  the 
extinguishment  (which  is  not  extinction)  of  the  pheno 
menal  rays. 





(Translated  from.  tlic  Sanskrit.} 

[THIS  book  is  couched  in  the  form  of  a  dialogue 
between  the  god  Shiva  and  his  wife  Parvati.  All  the 
Tantras  have  the  same  form.  The  former  is  generally 
spoken  of  as  Ishvara,  the  latter  as  Devi  or  Shakti. 
From  its  method  of  composition  the  treatise  does  not 
seem  to  have  been  written  by  Shiva,  the  supposed 
author  of  the  SJiivaguna.  In  the  first  place  there  arc- 
several  stanzas  in  the  book,  which  appear  to  be  the 
composition  of  different  authors,  put  in  the  present 
form  by  some  compiler;  and,  secondly,  the  author 
says  in  one  place  that  he  was  going  to  describe  certain 
experiments  as  he  had  seen  them  in  the  Shiva gaina, 
or  "Teachings  of  Shiva." 

In  the  end  of  one  MS.,  however,  it  is  said  that  tin- 
book  comprises  the  eighth  chapter  of  the  Shivagaina. 

In  the  Kcnopanishad  the  great  commentator  Shan- 
karacharya  interprets  Uma  Haimavati  (another  name 


of  Parvati)  as  Brahma  Vidya,  the  Divine  Science  or 
Theosophia.  There  the  goddess  appears  as  a  teacher, 
and  she  may  well  personify  Theosophia.  This  expla 
nation,  however,  will  hardly  hold  good  here.  Here 
Shiva  and  Parvati  seem  to  be  the  positive  and  nega 
tive  principles.  They  are  best  acquainted  with  their 
own  working.  The  god,  the  positive  principle,  ex 
plaining  to  the  Shakti,  the  negative  principle,  the 
various  modes  in  which  the  finer  forces  of  nature 
imprint  themselves  upon  the  grosser  planes,  may  be 
the  symbol  of  the  eternal  impression  of  all  thoughts 
and  living  organisms  into  the  Shakti — the  passive 
matter,  Rayi — by  Shiva  the  active  principle.] 
Said  the  goddess: 

1.  Lord  Mahadeva,  god  of  gods,  be  kind  to  me,  and 
tell  me  the  wisdom  that  comprehends  everything. 

2.  How  did  the  universe  come  forth?     How  does  it 
continue?     How  does  it  disappear?     Tell  me,  O  lord, 
the  philosophy  of  the  universe. 

Said  the  god : 

3.  The  universe  came  out  of  Tattva*  [or  the  Tatt- 
vas];  it  goes  on  by  the  instrumentality  of  the  Tattvas; 
it  disappears  into  the  Tattvas;  by  the  Tattvas  is  known 
the  nature  of  the  universe. 

[The  universe  comprehends  all  the  manifestations 
with  which  we  are  familiar,  either  on  the  physical, 
the  mental,  or  the  psychic  plane.  All  of  them  have 

*  In  the  original  the  singular  number  is  often  used  to  denote 
the  common  quality  of  the  five  Tattvas— that  by  which  each  is 
known  as  such. 

THK    SC1KXCK    OF    BRKATH.  l8/ 

come  out  of  the  Tattvas.  The  Tattvas  are  the  forces 
which  lie  at  the  root  of  all  these  manifestations. 
Creation,  preservation,  and  destruction,  or,  more 
strictly  speaking,  appearance,  sustenance,  and  dis 
appearance  of  the  phenomena  we  are  acquainted  with, 
are  tattvic  changes  of  state.] 

Said  the  goddess: 

4.  The  knowers  of  the  Tattvas  have  ascertained  the 
Tattvas  to  be  the  highest  root;   what,  O  god,  is  the 
nature  of  the  Tattvas?     Throw  light  upon  the  Tattvas. 

Said  the  god : 

5.  Unmanifested,  formless,  the  one  giver  of  light, 
is  the  Great  Power;  from  that  appeared  the  sonorifer- 
ous  ether  (Akasha);  from  that  had  birth  the  tangiferous 

[This  Great  Power  is  the  Parabrahinan  of  the 
Vedantins,  the  first  change  of  state  which  stands  at 
the  crown  of  evolution.  This  is  the  first  positive 
phase  of  life.  All  the  Upanishads  concur  in  this.  In 
the  beginning  all  this  was  Sat  (the  positive  phase  of 

From  this  state  come  out  by  degrees  the  five  ethers 
-Tattvas  or  Mahabhutas  as  they  are  also  called. 
"From  him  came  the  Akasha  and  so  on,1'  says  the 
Upanishad.  This  state  of  Parabrahinan  is  called  in 
the  text  " unmanifested."  .Manifestation  for  us  only 
begins  with  the  "Kgo,"  the  sixth  principle  of  our 
constitution— all  beyond  that  is  naturally  unmani- 

"Formless"— this   epithet   is  given  because   forms 


only  show  themselves  when  the  Tattvas  and  the  two 
states  of  matter— the  positive  and  the  negative,  the 
active  and  the  passive — come  into  existence. 

As  yet  there  is  only  one  universal  state  of  matter. 
Hence  is  also  given  to  that  state  the  epithet  "one." 

He  is  also  called  the  "  giver  of  light."  This  light 
is  the  real  life.  It  is  this  state  which  changes  into 
the  five  ethers,  which  form  the  atmosphere  of  the 
sixth  principle  of  the  universe.] 

6.  From   the    tangiferous   ether,   the   luminiferous 
ether,  and  from  this  the  gustiferous  ether;  thence  was 
the  birth  of  the  odoriferous  ether.     These  are  the  five 
ethers  and  they  have  five-fold  extension. 

7.  From  these  the  universe  came  forth;  by  these  it 
continues;  into  these  it  disappears;  among  these  also 
it  shows  itself  again. 

8.  The  body  is  made  of  the  five  Tattvas;  the  five 
Tattvas,  O  fair  one,  exist  therein  in  the  subtle  form; 
they  are  known  by  the  learned  who  devote  themselves 
to  the  Tattvas. 

[The  body— human  as  well  as  every  other— is  made 
of  the  five  Tattvas  in  their  gross  form.  In  this  gross 
body  play  the  five  Tattvas  in  their  subtle  form.  They 
govern  it  physiologically,  mentally,  psychically  and 
spiritually.  These  are  therefore  the  four  subtle  forms 
of  the  Tattvas.] 

9.  On  this   account   shall   I   speak   of    the   rise   of 
breath  in  the  body;  by  knowing  the  nature  of  inspi 
ration  and  expiration  comes  into  being  the  knowledge 
of  the  three  times. 


[Man  can  devote  himself  most  easily  to  his  own 
body.  On  this  account  have  been  described  here  the 
laws  of  the  rise  of  the  breath  in  the  body. 

Knowledge  of  the  three  times— the  past,  the  present 
raid  the  future— is  nothing  more  than  a  scientific 
knowledge  of  the  causes  and  effects  of  phenomena. 
Know  the  present  tattvic  state  of  things,  know  its 
antecedent  and  consequent  states,  and  yon  have  a 
knowledge  of  the  three  times.] 

10.  This  science  of  the  rise  of  breath,  the  hidden 
of  the  hidden,  the  revealer  of  the  true  Good,  is  a  pearl 
on  the  head  of  the  wise. 

n.  This  knowledge  is  the  subtle  of  the  subtle;  it 
is  easily  understood;  it  causes  the  belief  of  truth;  it 
excites  wonder  in  the  world  of  unbelievers;  it  is  the 
support  among  them  that  believe. 

[The  Qualities  of  the  Pupil] 

12.  The  science  of  the  rise  of  breath  is  to  be  given 
to  the  calm,  the  pure,  the  virtuous,  the  firm  and  the 
grateful,    and    to   the    single-minded    devotee  of    the 

13.  It  is  not  to  be  given  to  the  vicious,  the  impure, 
the  angry,  the  untruthful,  the  adulterer,  and  him  who 
has  wasted  his  substance. 

\Thc  Science  of  Breath] 

14.  Hear,  thou  goddess,  the  wisdom  which  is  found 
in  the   body;    omniscience    is    caused    by  it,   if   well 

*  Spiritual  teacher. 


15.  In  the  Svara  are  the  Vedas  and  the  Shastras;  in 
the  Svara  the  highest  Gandharva;   in  the  Svara  are 
all  the  three  worlds;    the  Svara  is  the  reflection  of 

["In  the  Svara  are  the  Vedas,"  etc.  Svara,  as  has 
been  seen,  is  the  "current  of  the  life-wave."  It  is  the 
same  as  the  "intelligence"  of  the  Yedantins.  The 
assertion  in  this  stanza  may  have  two  meanings.  It 
may  mean  that  the  things  described  in  the  Vedas  are 
in  the  Svara,  or  it  may  mean  that  the  description  itself 
is  there.  It  may  mean  that  both  are  there.  This  is 
of  course  an  absolute  fact.  There  is  nothing  in  the 
manifested  universe  which  has  not  received  existence 
from  the  Great  Breath,  which  is  the  Prana  of  the 
universe  on  the  highest  plane  of  life.] 

16.  Without  a  knowledge  of  the  breath  [Svara]  the 
astrologer  is  a  house  without  its  lord,  a  speaker  with 
out  learning,  a  trunk  without  a  head. 

17.  Whoever  knows  the  analysis  of  the  Nadis,  the 
Prana,  the  Tattvas,  and  the  conjunctive  Sushumna, 
gains  salvation. 

1 8.  It  is  always  auspicious  in  the  seen  or  the  unseen 
universe,  when  the  power  of  breath  is  mastered;  they 
say,  O  fair  one,  that  the  knowledge  of  the  science  of 
breath  is  also  somewhat  auspicious. 

[This  stanza  points  to  the  difference  between  prac 
tical  and  theoretical  occultism.  The  practice  is,  of 
course,  highly  auspicious,  but  the  theory,  too,  puts 
us  in  the  right  track,  and  is,  therefore,  "somewhat 


19.  The  parts  and  the  first  accumulations  of  the  uni 
verse  were  made  by  the  Svara,  and  the  Svara  is  visible 
as  the  Great  Power,  the  creator  and  the  destroyer. 

[For  some  reflections  on  this  subject  the  reader  is 
referred  to  the  essay  on  Evolution.] 

20.  A  knowledge  more  secret  than  the  science  of 
breath,  wealth  more  useful  than  the  science  of  breath, 
a  friend  more  true  than  the  science  of   breath,  has 
never  been  seen  or  heard  of. 

21.  An  enemy  is  killed  by  the  power  of  the  breath, 
friends  also  are  brought  together;  wealth  is  obtained 
through  the  power  of  the  breath,  and  comfort  and 
reputation  also. 

22.  By  the  power  of  breath  one  gets  a  female  child  or 
meets  a  king;  by  the  power  of  breath  are  gods  propi. 
tiated,  and  by  the  breath  is  a  king  placed  in  a  person's 

23.  Locomotion  is  caused  by  the  power  of  breath; 
food,  too,  is  taken  by  the  power  of  breath;  urine  and' 
fujces  are  also  discharged  by  the  power  of  breath. 

24.  All  the  Shastras  and  Puranas  and  the  rest,  be 
ginning  with  the  Yedas  and  the  Upanishads,  contain 
no   principle   beyond   the   knowledge  of   Svara    [the 

25.  All   are  names  and  forms.      Among  all   these 
people  wander  mistaken.     They  are  fools  steeped  in 
ignorance  unless  the  Tattvas  are  known. 

[Every  phenomenon  is  nothing  more  than  a  phase 
of  tattvic  motion. 

All  the  phenomena  of  the  universe  are  names  and 


forms.  All  these  names  and  forms  live  in  the  Svara 
of  Parabrahman,  or  rather  in  the  subtler  Tattvas,  but 
there  nothing  is  distinguishable.  They  are  only  dis 
tinguished  as  such  when  they  are  imprinted  upon  the 
grosser  planes.  The  impression  takes  place  by  the 
instrumentality  of  Rayi,  the  cooler  state  of  life-matter, 
which  is  only  the  shade  of  Prana,  the  original  state. 
Hence  the  names  and  forms  are  all  unreal.] 

26.  This  science  of  the  rise  of  breath  is  the  highest 
of  all  the  high  sciences;  it  is  a  flame  for  illumining 
the  mansion  of  the  soul. 

27.  The  knowledge  cannot  be  imparted  to  this  man 
or  that  except  in  answer  to  a  question ;  it  is  therefore 
to  be  known  by  one's  own  exertions  in  and  by  the 
soul  alone. 

[This  is  the  celebrated  dictum,  "Know  thyself  by 
thyself,"  which  differs  from  the  Greek  aphorism  by 
the  addition  of  the  last  two  words.] 

28.  Neither  the  lunar  day,  nor  the  constellations, 
nor  the  solar  day,  nor  planet,  nor  god;  neither  rain 
nor  the  Yyatipata,  nor  the  conjunctions  Vaidhrita,  etc., 

[These  are  all  of  them  the  various  phases  of  the 
five  different  tattvic  states.  They  have  a  natural 
effect  upon  the  terrestrial  life.  The  effect  differs  with 
the  thing  influenced.  The  rays  of  the  tattvic  state  of 
time  will  only  be  reflected  into  any  organism  if  the 
reflecting  surface  is  akin.  The  Yogi  who  has  power 
over  his  breath  can  put  it  into  any  tattvic  state  he 
chooses,  and  the  antagonistic  effects  of  time  are  simply 
thrown  off.] 


29.  Nor  do  the  bad  conjunctions,  O  goddess,  ever 
have   power;    when   one   attains   the   pure   power  of 
Svara,  everything  has  good  effect. 

30.  In  the  body  are  the  Nadis  having  many  forms 
and  extensions;  they  ought  to  be  known  in  the  body 
by  the  wise,  for  the  sake  of  knowledge. 

31.  Branching  off  from  the  root  in  the  navel,  seventy- 
two  thousand  of  them  extend  in  the  body. 

[The  Yogis  take  the  navel  to  be  the  starting  point 
of  the  system  of  Nadis.  Says  Patanjali,  the  great 
Yoga  philosopher:  "The  systems  of  the  body  are 
known  by  concentration  upon  the  navel."  On  the 
other  hand,  the  Vedantins  take  the  heart  to  be  the 
starting  point  of  the  system.  The  former  assign  as 
their  reason,  the  existence  in  the  navel  of  the  power 
Kundalini,  the  latter  the  existence  in  the  heart  of  the 
cardiac  soul  (the  Lingam  Atma),  which  is  the  real  life 
of  the  gross  body.  This,  however,  is  immaterial.  We 
may  begin  wherever  we  like,  if  we  only  truly  under 
stand  the  location  of  the  life-principle,  and  its  various 

32.  In  the  navel  is  the  power  Kundalini  sleeping 
like  a  serpent;  thence  ten  Nadis  go  upwards  and  ten 

[The  power  Kundalini  sleeps  in  the  developed 
organism.  It  is  that  power  which  draws  in  gross 
matter  from  the  mother-organism  through  the  um 
bilical  cord,  and  distributes  it  to  the  different  places 
where  the  seminal  Prana  gives  it  form.  When  the 
child  separates  from  the  mother  the  power  goes  to 


sleep.  She  is  no  more  wanted  now.  Upon  the  sup 
plies  of  the  Kundalim  depend  the  dimensions  of  the 
body  of  the  child.  It  is  said  that  it  is  possible  to 
awake  the  goddess  even  in  the  developed  organism  by 
certain  practices  of  Yoga.] 

33.  Two  and  two  of  the  Nadis  go  crosswise;  they 
are  thus  twenty-four  in  number.     The  principal  are 
the  ten  Nadis  in  which  act  the  ten  forces. 

34.  Crosswise,  or  upwards,  or  downwards,  in  them 
is  manifested  the  Prana  all  over  the  body.     They  are 
in  the  body  in  the  shape  of  Chakras  supporting  all  the 
manifestations  of  Prana. 

35.  Of  all  these,  ten  are  the  chief;  of  the  ten,  three 
are  the  highest— Ida,  and  Pingala,  and  Sushumna. 

36.  Gandhan,   Hastijihva,   Pusha  and  Yashasvini; 
Alambusha,  Kuhu,  Shankhini,  and  also  Damim. 

37.  Ida  is  in  the  left  part,  Pingala  in  the  right,  Su 
shumna  in  the  middle;  Gandhari  in  the  left  eye. 

38.  In  the  right  eye  Hastijihva;    in  the  right  ear 
Pusha;    Yashasvini   in    the   left   ear;    in   the   mouth 

39.  Kuhu  in  the  pudendum ;  in  the  anus  Shankhini. 
In  this  way  one  at  each  outlet  stand  the  Nadis. 

40.  Ida,  Pingala,  and  Sushumna  stand  in  the  way 
of  the  Prana,  these  ten  Nadis  extend  variously  in  the 


[For  a  dissertation  on  these  three  Nadis  the  reader 
is  referred  to  the  essay  on  Prana.  On  a  small  scale 
the  right  and  left  chambers  of  the  heart,  and  the 
right  and  left  portions  of  the  spinal  column  are  the 


Pingala  and  Ida.  The  canal  between  these  two  is  the 
Sushumna.  Taking  the  blood-vessel  system  to  be  a 
mere  reflection  of  the  nervous  system,  the  terminology 
might  be  applied  to  the  nerves  alone.  It  appears, 
however,  that  the  Nadis  of  the  Tantrists  comprehend 
both  these  systems.  In  the  nervous  system  there  is 
the  real  power,  and  this  must  be  present  everywhere 
where  there  is  any  manifestation  of  life.] 

41.  The  above  are  the  names  of  the  Nadis.     I  now 
give  the  names  of  the  forces:  Prana  (i),  Apana  (2), 
Samana  (3),  Udana  (.j),  and  Vyana  (5). 

42.  Naga   (6),   Kurma   (7),   and   Krikila   (8),  Deva- 
datta  (9),  and   Dhananjaya  (10).     In  the  breast  lives 
always   the    Prana;    the   Apana  in  the  circle   of  the 

43.  The   Samana    in   the  circle  of  the   navel,   the 
Udana  in  the  midst  of  the  throat;  the  Vyana  pervades 
all  the  body.     These  are  the  ten  principal  forces. 

44.  The  five  beginning  with  the  Prana  have  been 
described.    The  remaining  five  forces  begin  with  Naga. 
Their  names  and  places  too  I  give. 

45.  The  Naga  is  known  in  belching;  the  Kiirma  in 
the  winking  of  the  eye;  the  Krikila  is  known  as  the 
cause  of  hunger;  the  Devadatta  is  known  in  yawning. 

46.  The  all-pervading  Dhananjaya  does   not   leave 
even  the  dead  body.     All  these  move  in  all  the  Nadis 
where  they  put  on  the  appearance  of  life. 

47.  Let  the  wise  man  know  the  manifest  movements 
of  the  individualized  Prana  by  the  three  Nadis — Ida, 
Pingala,  and  Sushumna. 


48.  The  Ida  is  to  be  known  in  the  left  half  and  the 
Pingala  in  the  right  [half  of  the  body]. 

49.  The  moon  is  placed  in  Ida,  the  sun  in  Pingala; 
Sushumna  has  the  nature  of  Sambhu,  and  Samblm  is 
the  self  of  Hamsa  [both  inspiration  and  expiration]. 

50.  Expiration  is  called  Ha;  inspiration  is  Sa;  Ha 
is  the  Shiva    [the  active],  and   Sa  the  Shakti    [the 


51.  The  moon  appears  as  Shakti,  causing  the  left 
Nadi  to  flow;  causing  the  right  Nadi  to  flow,  the  sun 
appears  as  Sambhu  [active]. 

52.  Any  charity  given  by  the  wise  while  the  breath 
is  in  the  left  nostril  is  multiplied  crores*  on  crorcs  of 
times  in  this  world. 

53.  Let  the  Yogi  look  into  his  face,  with  one  mind 
and  with  attention,  and  thus  let  him  know  fully  the 
motion  of  the  sun  and  the  moon. 

54.  Let  him  meditate  upon  the  Tattva  when  the 
Prana  is  calm,  never  when  it  is  disturbed;  his  desire 
will  be  fulfilled,  he  will  have  great  benefit  and  victory. 

55.  To  those  men  who  practise,  and  thus  always 
keep  the  sun  and  moon  in  proper  order,  knowledge  of 
the  past  and  the  future  becomes  as  easy  as  if  they  were 
in  their  hand. 

56.  In  the  left  Nadi  the  appearance  of  the  breath  is 
that  of  the  Amrita  [nectar] ;  it  is  the  great  nourisher 
of  the  world.      In   the  right,   the   motion-imparting 
portion,  the  world  is  always  born. 

[The  negative  phase  of  Prana  has  the  qualities  of 
•  A  crore  =  10,000,000. 

THlv   vSCIK.\'CK    OF    I5RKATH.  197 

Amrita,  the  giver  of  eternal  life.  The  negative  matter, 
the  moon,  is  cooler  than  the  positive  matter,  the  sun. 
The  former  is  Rayi,  the  latter  Prana.  The  former 
receives  the  impressions  from  the  latter,  and  this  plays 
the  part  of  imparting  impressions  to  that.  The  moon, 
therefore,  is  the  real  life  of  all  names  and  forms.  In 
her  they  live;  she  keeps  them  up.  She  is,  therefore, 
the  Amrita,  the  nectar  of  life.  The  right  Nadi  is, 
from  the  greater  temperature  it  possesses,  the  imparter 
of  names  and  forms,  or,  briefly,  the  motion-imparting 
phase  of  life  matter.  It  is  the  tendency  of  the  sun  to 
always  cause  changes  in  names  and  forms,  and  giving 
new  impressions  in  the  place  of  the  old.  Hence  the 
sun  is  the  greater  destroyer  of  forms.  He  is  the  father 
of  the  forms,  but  the  real  preserver  is  the  moon.] 

57.  In  the  midst  the  Sushumna  moves  very  cruelly, 
and  is  very  bad  in  all  acts;  everywhere  in  auspicious 
acts  the  left  [Nadi]  causes  strength. 

58.  In  going  out  the  left  is  auspicious;  in  going  in 
the  right  is  auspicious;  the  moon  must  be  known  to 
be  even,  the  sun  odd. 

59.  The  moon  is  the  female,  the  sun  is  the  male; 
the  moon  is  fair,  the  sun  is  dark.*     During  the  flow  of 
the  Nadi  of  the  moon,  let  calm  acts  be  done. 

60.  During  the  flow  of  the  Nadi  of  the  sun  harsh 
works  are  to  be  done ;  during  the  flow  of  the  Sushumna 
are   to  be  done    acts   resulting   in   the    attainment    of 
psychic  powers  and  salvation. 

61.  In  the  bright  fortnight  the  moon  comes  in  first, 

*  As  compared  with  the  moon. 


in  the  dark  one  the  sun;  beginning  from  the  first 
lunar  day  they  rise  one  after  the  other  in  order,  each 
after  three  days. 

62.  The  moon  and  the  sun  have  each  the  white 
[northward,  upward]  and  the  black  [southward,  down 
ward]  duration  of  two  and  a  half  Gharis.     They  flow 
in  order  during  the  sixty  Gharis  of  a  day. 

63.  Then  by  a  Ghari  each   [twenty-four  minutes] 
the  five  Tattvas  flow.    The  days  begin  with  the  Prati- 
pata  [the  first  lunar  day].    When  the  order  is  reversed 
the  effect  is  reversed. 

64.  In  the  bright  fortnight  the  left  [is  powerful], 
in  the   dark  the   right;   let  the  Yogi  with  attention 
bring  these  into  order,  beginning  with  the  first  lunar 


65.  If  the  breath  rises*  by  the  way  of  the  moon, 
and  setst  by  that  of  the  sun,  it  confers  groups  of  good 
qualities;  in  the  reverse,  the  reverse. 

66.  Let  the  moon  flow  the  whole  day  through,  and 
the  sun  the  whole  night;  he  who  practises  thus  is  verily 
a  Yogi. 

67.  The  moon  is  checked  by  the  sun,  the  sun  by  the 
moon;  he  who  knows  this  practice,  strides  in  a  moment 
over  the  three  worlds  [i.e.,  nothing  in  the  three  worlds 
can  have  an  evil  effect  upon  him]. 

68.  During  Thursdays,  Fridays,  Wednesdays,  and 
Mondays   the    left    Nadi    gives    success    in    all    acts, 
especially  in  the  white  fortnight. 

69.  During  Sundays,  Tuesdays,  and  Saturdays  the 

•  At  sunrise.  t  At  sunset. 

Till-;   SCIKNCE   OF    BREATH.  !>/.; 

right  Nadi  gives  success  in  all  harsh  acts,  especially 
in  the  black  fortnight. 

70.  During  five  Gharis  each,  the  Tattvas  have  their 
distinct  rise  in  order,  Ghari  by  Ghari. 

71.  Thus  there  are  twelve  changes  during  day  and 
night.     Taurus,  Cancer,  Virgo,  Scorpio,  Capricornus, 
Pisces  are  in  the  moon  [Y.6\,  with  these  signs  the  breath 
rises  in  the  left  Nadi]. 

72.  During  Aries,  Gemini,  Leo,  Libra,  Sagittarius 
and  Aquarius,  the  rise  of  the  breath  is  in  the  right 
Nadi.     From  this  good  or  bad  is  ascertained. 

73.  The  sun  is  centred  in  the  east  and  the  north,  the 
moon  in  the  west  and  south.     Let  none  go  to  west  and 
south  during  the  flow  of  the  right  Nadi. 

74.  Let  none  go  to  east  and  north  during  the  flow 
of  the  left  Nadi.     .     .     . 

75.  The  wise  who  desire  good  should  not  therefore 
go  in  these  directions  during  these  intervals;  for  then 
assuredly  will  there  be  suffering  and  death. 

76.  When,  during   the   bright   fortnight,  the   moon 
flows,  it  is  beneficial  to  the  man;  comfort  is  caused  in 
mild  deeds. 

77.  When  at  the  time  of  the  rise  of  the  sun-breath 
the    moon-breath    rises,    and    vice,   vcrsd,    quarrel    and 
danger  make  appearance,  and  all  good  disappears. 

\_Thc  ll'rvtig  Sz'(ird.~\ 

78.  When  in  the  morning  the  wrong  breath  takes  its 
rise,  that  is  the  sun  in  place  of  the  moon,  and  the  moon 
in  place  of  the  sun ;  then 


79.  On  the  first  day  the  mind  is  confused ;  on  the 
second  [occurs]  loss  of  wealth ;  on  the  third  they  speak 
of  motion ;  on  the  fourth  the  destruction  of  the  desired 

80.  On  the  fifth  the  destruction  of  worldly  position ; 
on  the  sixth  the  destruction  of  all  objects;   on  the 
seventh  disease  and  pain;  on  the  eighth  death. 

81.  When    for   these   eight   days,  at   all    the   three 
times,  the  breath  is  wrong,  then   the  effect  is  abso 
lutely  bad;    when   it   is   not   quite  so  there  is  some 

82.  When  in  the  morning  and  the  noon  there  is  the 
moon,  and  in  the  evening  the  sun,  then  there  is  always 
success  and  benefit.     The  reverse  gives  pain. 

83.  Whenever  the  breath  is  in  the  right  or  the  left 
Nadi,  the  journey  will  be  successful,  if  the  right  or  the 
left,  as  the  case  may  be,  is  the  first  step. 

96.  During  the  flow   of    the  moon,  poison   is   de 
stroyed;  during  that  of  the  sun,  power  is  obtained  over 
any  body.     During  Sushumna  salvation  is  obtained. 
One  power  stands  in  three  forms — Pingala,  Ida,  and 

97.  It  may  happen  that  when  something  is  to  be 
done,  the  breath  is  not  rightly  flowing,  or  conversely, 
when  the  breath  is  flowing  as  it  ought  to  be,  there  is 

*  Thus  the  effects  of  the  wrong  breath  depend  upon  its  strength. 
In  the  majority  of  cases  there  may  only  be  a  tendency  towards 
these  effects,  or  there  may  only  be  a  dream  of,  or  an  anxiety  about, 
these  things. 


no  occasion  for  the  action  to  be  done.  How  then 
is  a  man  of  business  to  follow  the  promptings  of 

98.  Auspicious  or  inauspicious  acts  are  always  done 
day  and  night.     When  need  be,  the  proper  Nadi  is  to 
be  set  in  motion. 


99.  In  those  acts  which  are  desired  to  have  durable 
effect,  in  adornment,  in  going  on  a  distant  journey, 
in  entering  an  order  of  life  (Ashrama)  or  a  palace,  in 
amassing  wealth, 

100.  In  sinking  wells,  ponds,  tanks,  etc.,  in  erecting 
columns  and  idols,  in  buying  utensils,  in  marriage,  in 
having  clothes,  jewelry,  and  ornaments  made, 

101.  In   preparing   cooling   and   nourishing    medi 
cines,  in  seeing  one's  lord,  in  trade,  in  the  collection 
of  grain, 

102.  In  going  into  a  new  house,  in  taking  charge  of 
some  office,  in  cultivation,  in  throwing  the  seed,  in 
auspicious  peace-making,  in  going  out — the  moon  is 

103.  In  such  acts  as  beginning  to  read,  etc.,  in  see 
ing  relations,     ....     in  virtue,  in  learning  from 
some  spiritual  teacher,  in  rehearsing  a  Mantra, 

104.  In    reading   the    aphorisms   of  the  science   of 
time,  in  bringing  quadrupeds  home,  in  the  treatment 
of  diseases,  in  calling  upon  masters, 

105.  In  riding  horses  and  elephants,  in  doing  good 
to  others,  in  making  deposits, 


106.  In   singing,    in  playing  upon  instruments,  in 
thinking  of  the  science  of  musical  sounds,  in  entering 
any  town  or  village,  in  coronation, 

107.  In  disease,  sorrow,  dejection,  fever  and  swoon, 
in  establishing  relations  with  one's  people,  and  masters, 
in  collecting  grain,  and  fuel,  etc., 

108.  In  the  adornment  of  the  person  by  women, 
when  rain  is  coming,  in  the  worship  of  the  teacher, 
etc.,  O  fair  one,  the  moon  is  auspicious. 

109.  Such  acts  also  as   the   practice  of  Yoga   are 
successful  in  Ida.     In  Ida,  verily,  let  one  give  up  the 
Akasha  and  Tejas  modifications  of  Prana. 

no.  By  day  or  by  night  all  works  are  successful; 
in  all  auspicious  works  the  flow  of  the  moon  is 

in.  In  all  harsh  acts,  in  the  reading  and  teaching 
of  difficult  sciences,  ....  in  going  on  board  a 

112.  In  all  bad  acts,  in  drinking,  in  rehearsing  the 
Mantras  of  such  a  god  as  Bhairava,     .... 

113.  In  learning  the  Shastras,  in  going,  in  hunting, 
in  .the  selling  of  animals,  in  the  difficult  collection  of 
bricks,  wood,  stone,  and  jewels,  etc., 

114.  In  the  practice  of  music,  in  the  Yantras  and 
Tantras,  in   climbing  a  high   place  or  mountain,  in 
gambling,  in  theft,  in  the  breaking  in  of  an  elephant 
or  a  horse,  in  a  carriage  or  otherwise, 

115.  In  riding  a  new  donkey,  camel,  or  buffalo,  or 


an  elephant,  or  horse,  in  crossing  a  stream,  in  medicine, 
in  writing, 

116.  In  athletic  sports,  in  killing  or  producing  con 
fusion,  in  practising  the  six  Karnias,  etc.,  in  obtaining 
power  over  Yakshinis,  Yakshas,  Vetalas,  Poisons  and 
Bhutas,  etc., 

117.  In  killing,     ....     in  enmity,  in  mesmeris 
ing,*  causing  one  to  do  anything  at  bidding — in  draw 
ing  anyone  towards  anything,  in  causing  distress  and 
confusion,  in  charity,  and  buying  and  selling, 

118.  In  practising  with  swords,  in  battle,  in  seek 
ing   the  king,   in   eating,  in    bathing,    in    mercantile 
negotiations,    in    harsh    and    hot    deeds,    the   sun    is 

119.  Just  after  eating,     ....     the  sun  is  auspi 
cious.     The  wise  ought  to  sleep,  too,  during  the  flow 
of  the  sun  breath. 

1 20.  All  harsh  acts,  all  those  various  acts  which  in 
their  nature  must  be  transitory  and   temporary,  find 
success  during  the  sun.     There  is  no  doubt  in  this. 


121.  When  the  breath   moves  one  moment  in  the 
left  and  the  other  in  the  right,  that  [state  of  Prana] 
is  known   as   Sushumna.     It  is  the  destroyer   of  all 

[It  will  be  seen  that  in  this  section  three  phases  of 
the  Sushumna  arc  noticed. 

*  The  man  will  never  have  courage  and  moral  turpitude  enough 
to  do  the  act  but  when  the  right  Nadi  flows. 


(i)  When  the  breath  comes  one  moment  out  of  one 
nostril  and  the  next  out  of  the  other. 

(ii)  When  the  breath  at  once  flows  out  of  both  nos 
trils  with  equal  force. 

(iii)  When  the  breath  flows  out  of  one  nostril  with 
greater  force  than  it  does  out  of  the  other. 

The  first  is  called  the  unequal  state  (Vishamabhava). 
The  second  and  third  are  called  the  Vishuvat  or 

122.  When  the  Prana  is  in  that  Nadi  the  fires  of 
death  burn.     It  is  called  Vishuvat,  the  destroyer  of  all 

123.  When  both  the  Nadis,  which  ought  to  flow 
one  after  the  other,  flow  at  once,  then  verily  there  is 
danger  for  him  who  is  thus  afflicted. 

124.  When  it  is  at  one  moment  in  the  right,  and 
the  other  moment  in  the  left,  it  is  called  the  unequal 
state.     The  effect  is  the  reverse  of  what  is  desired, 
and  so  it  ought  to  be  known,  O  fair  one! 

125.  The  wise  call  it  Vishuvat  when  both  the  Nadis 
flow.     Do  neither  harsh  nor  mild  acts  at  that  time; 
both  will  be  fruitless. 

126.  In  life,  in  death,  in  asking  questions,  in  income, 
or  its  absence,  in  success  or  its  want — everywhere  the 
reverse  is  the  case  during  the  flow  of  the  Vishuvat. 
Remember  then  the  Lord  of  the  Universe. 

127.  The  Ishvara  is  to  be  remembered  by  acts  such 
as  the  practice  of  Yoga,  nothing  else  is  to  be  done  at 
that  time  by  those  who  desire  success,  income  and 


128.  Pronounce  a  curse  or  benediction  v/hen  with 
the  sun  the  Sushuinuu  flows  slowly,  and  it  will  be 

129.  When  the  unequal  state  takes  rise,  do  not  so 
much  as  think  of  journeying.     Journeying  during  this 
state  undoubtedly  causes  pain  and  death. 

130.  When  the  Nadi  changes  or  the  Tattva  changes, 
nothing  auspicious  shall  be  done  by  way  of  charity, 

131.  In  the  front,  in  the  left  and  above  is  the  moon. 
On  the  back,  on  the  right  and  below  is  the  sun.     In 
this   way   the   wise   ought    to   know   the    distinction 
between  the  full  and  empty. 

[Two  more  phases  of  conjunction  have  been  noticed : 
(i)  Sandhya  Sandhi;  (ii)  Vedoveda.  According  to 
some  philosophers  these  do  not  exist.  These  two 
are  said  to  be  but  the  names  of  the  two  foregoing 
ones.  This,  however,  is  not  the  thesis  of  the  pre 
sent  writer.  He  holds  that  both  these  states  exist 

(i)  The  Sandhya  Sandhi  is  that  Sushumna  through 
which  disappearance  takes  place  into  the  higher 
matter  beyond.  The  physiological  Sushumna  is  the 
reservoir  of  man's  potential  physiological  life.  From 
that  state  either  the  positive  or  the  negative  phase  of 
life  takes  its  birth. 

But  the  Sushumna  is  the  child  of  a  higher  phase  of 
life.  The  positive  and  negative  mental  forces  accord 
ing  to  similar  laws  give  birth  to  this  potential  Prana- 
maya  Kosha.  The  world,  as  some  writers  have  said, 


is  the  outcome  of  mental  motion  (Sankalpa,  Manah 
Sphurana).  The  state  of  the  conjunction  of  these 
two  mental  states  is  the  Sandhya  Sandhi.  The  same 
name  seems  to  have  been  given  to  the  higher  Sti- 
shumna.  When  the  two  phases  of  mental  matter  are 
neutralized  in  the  Susliuinna,  the  Pranamaya  Kosha 
loses  its  vitality  and  disappears. 

(ii)  This  is  that  state  in  which  is  thrown  the  reflec 
tion  of  the  Higher  Atma,  and  whence  it  is  possible 
for  it  to  come  into  the  mind.] 

132.  The  messenger  who  is  above,  in  front,  or  on 
the  left,  is  in  the  way  of  the  moon,  and  he  who  is 
below,  at  the  back  and  on  the  right,  is  in  the  way  of 
the  sun. 

133.  The  conjunction  through  which  disappearance 
takes  place  in  the  subtle  matter  beyond,  which  has  no 
beginning,  is  one,  and  is  without  [potential]  nourish 
ment  or  confusion,  is  called  Sandhya  Sandhi. 

134.  Some  say  there  is  no  separate  Sandhya  Sandhi, 
but  the  state  in  which  the  Prana  is  in  the  Vishuvat  is 
called  Sandhya  Sandhi. 

135.  There  is  no   separate  Vedoveda,  it  does  not 
exist.     That  conjunction  is  called  Vedoveda  by  which 
the  highest  Atma  is  known. 


Said  the  goddess: 

136.  Great  lord!  god  of  the  gods!  in  thy  mind  is 
the  great  secret  which  gives  salvation  to  the  world; 
tell  me  all  of  it. 


Said  the  god : 

137.  There  is  no  god  beyond  the  secret  knowledge 
of  breath;  the  Yogi  who  is  devoted  to  the  scienee  of 
breath  is  the  highest  Yogi. 

138.  Creation  takes  place  from  the  five  Tattvas;  the 
Tattva  disappears  in  Tattva;   the  five  Tattvas  consti 
tute  the  objects  of   the  highest  knowledge;    beyond 
the  five  Tattvas  is  the  Formless. 

139.  The  Prithivi,  the  Apas,  the  Tejas,  the  Vayu, 
and  the  Akasha  are   the    five  Tattvas;  everything  is 
of  the  five  Tattvas.     Revered  is  he  who  knows  this. 

[How  everything — every  possible  phenomenon  of 
the  soul,  the  mind,  the  Prana,  and  the  gross  matter — 
is  of  the  Tattvas,  the  introductory  essays  have  tried 
to  explain.] 

140.  In  the   beings  of  all  the  worlds  the  Tattvas 
are  the  same  all  over;  from  the  earth  to  the  Satya- 
loka  the  arrangement  only  of  the    system    of  Nadis 

[The  nervous  system  is  different  in  all  the  Lokas. 
It  has  been  said  many  a  time  that  the  tattvic  rays 
flying  in  every  direction  from  every  point  give  birth 
to  innumerable  Trutis,  which  are  miniature  pictures 
of  the  macrocosm.  Now,  it  \vill  be  easy  to  under 
stand  that  these  pictures  are  formed  on  different 
planes,  which  are  differently  inclined  to  the  solar 
axis,  and  lie  at  different  distances  from  the  sun.  Our 
planet  is  at  a  certain  distance  from  the  sun,  and  life  is 
so  arranged  on  this  planet  that  the  lunar  and  solar 
life-currents  must  have  equal  force  if  the  organism  is 



to  be  maintained.  The  Tattvas  also  must  be  balanced. 
There  may  be  other  planes  of  life  in  which  the  respec 
tive  powers  of  the  two  currents  and  the  Tattvas  may 
be  greater  or  less  than  they  are  on  the  earth.  This 
difference  will  secure  a  difference  in  the  arrangements 
of  the  Nadis,  and  also  in  their  shape. 

We  experience  this  sort  of  thing  even  on  our  earth. 
Different  animals  and  vegetables  have  different  shapes. 
This  is  simply  on  account  of  the  different  Trutis  on 
different  planes,  differently  inclined  to  the  solar  axis. 
Suppose  for  the  sake  of  illustration  that  the  following 
is  the  sphere  of  the  macrocosmic  Prana: 

Works  on  astrology  assign  different  organs  to  these 
astral  divisions,  and  I  shall,  for  the  purpose  of  explana 
tion,  assume  these  without  further  explanation. 



Thus  we   have,   on   a   larger   scale,   the    following 
diagram : 

These  twelve  regions  comprehend  the  whole  body 
in  and  out.  Now,  suppose  there  is  a  plane  A  B  having 
a  certain  inclination  to  the  axis  of  the  sun,  S.  From 
ever)-  point  in  the  twelve  regions  rays  fall  in  every 
Truti  of  the  plane  A  P>.  Then  there  are  other  planes, 
C  D  and  K  F,  etc.  It  is  evident  that  the  rays  falling 
on  all  these  planes  from  the  twelve  regions,  will  vary 
in  relative  strength  and  position  on  different  planes. 
It  is  evident  that  on  all  these  planes  the  different 
organs  will  differ  in  shape,  in  strength,  and  in  relative 
position.  This  gives  birth  to  more  or  less  varying 
nervous  systems  in  all  the  Lokas,  and  the  various 
shapes  of  the  organisms  of  the  earth. 


As  in  evolution  the  necessities  of  the  mind  are  being 
changed,  the  Pranamaya  Koshas  change  their  planes, 
and  it  is  thus  that  they  are  changed  on  earth  according 
to  the  occult  theory  of  evolution.] 

141.  In  the  left  as  well  as  in  the  right  there  is  the 
five-fold  rise  [of  the  Tattvas].     The  knowledge  of  the 
Tattvas  is  eight-fold.     Hear  me,  fair  one,  I  will  tell 

142.  The  first  is  the  number  of  the  Tattvas;   the 
second   the  conjunction  of  breath;    the  third    is  the 
signs   of    the   breath;    the   fourth    the   place   of    the 
Tattvas ; 

143.  The  fifth  is  the  colour  of  the  Tattvas;  the  sixth 
is  the  Praua  itself;  the  seventh  is  their  taste;  the  eighth 
is  the  mode  of  their  vibration. 

144.  Hear  of  the  three-fold  Prana— the  Vishuvat,  the 
active  [sun],  the  passive  [the  moon]— in  these  eight 
forms.*      There   is   nothing,   O   lotus-faced    goddess, 
beyond  the  breath . 

145.  When  by  the  effect  of  time  the  power  of  seeing 
does  come  it  must  be  seen  with  great  effort.     The 
Yogis  act  for  the  purpose  of  deceiving  time. 

[The  Yogis  act  for  the  purpose  of  deceiving  time. 
Time  is  the  order  of  appearance  of  the  various  tattvic 
phases  of  a  living  organism.  In  man  this  order  is 
regulated  by  his  previous  Karma.  By  the  power  of 
previous  Karma,  the  human  organism  assumes  different 
receptive  states,  and  in  accordance  with  the  receptivity 

*  The  active  is  the  Chara,  the  motor,  the  passive  is  the  Achara 
or  Sthira,  the  receiver  of  motion. 


the  tattvic  influences  of  time— the  solar  Praua— cause 
pains  or  enjoyments  of  diffeivnt  sorts. 

By  the  practice  of  Yoga  the  Yogi  masters  the  tattvic 
changes  of  his  body.  Time  is  cheated.  If  he  pushes 
the  germ  of  disease  out  of  his  body  no  epidemic  will 
ever  affect  him.] 

146.  U-t  a  man  shut  his  ears  with  his  thumbs  his 
nostrils  with  the  middle  ringers,  his  mouth  with'  the 
last  fingers  and  those  last  but  one,  and  his  eyes  by  the 
remaining-  fingers. 

147-  In  this  state  the  five  Tattvas  are  gradually 
known  as  the  yellow,  the  white,  the  red,  the  blue,  and 
the  spotted  without  any  other  distinct  Upadhi  [differ 

148.  Looking  into  a  mirror,  let  the  breath  be  thrown 
upon  it;  thus  let  the  wise  man  know  the  difference  of 
the  Tattvas  by  their  forms. 

149-  Quadrangular,  semi-lunar,  triangular,  spheri 
cal,  and  spotted  arc  respectively  the  forms  of  the  five 

150.  Thus  the  first,  Prithivi,  flows  midway;  the 
second,  Apas,  flows  downwards;  the  third,  Ao-ni  flows 
upwards;  the  fourth,  Vayu,  flows  at  acute  angles;  the 
A  kasha  flows  between  every  two. 

151-  The  Apas  Tattva  is  white;  the  Prithivi  yellow 
the  Agni  red;  the  Vayu  sky-blue;  the  Akasha  fore 
shadows  every  colour. 

152.  First  of  all  flows  the  Vayu  Tattva;  secondly, 
the  Tejas;  thirdly,  the-  Prithivi:  and  fourthly,  the" 


153.  Between    the    two    shoulders    is    located    the 
Agni;  in  the   root  of  the  navel  Vayu;  in  the  knees 
the  Apas;  in   the  feet  the  Prithivi;  in  the  head  the 

154.  The  Prithivi  Tattva  is  sweet;  the  Apas  astrin 
gent;  the  Tejas  pungent;  the  Vayn  acid;  the  Akasha 

155.  The  Vayu    flows  eight   fingers'   breadth;    the 
Agni  four;  the  Prithivi  twelve;  the  Apas  sixteen. 

156.  The  upward  motion  tends  to  death;  the  down 
ward  to  calmness ;  the  one  at  acute  angles  to  restless 
ness;  the  middle  one  to  endurance;   the  Akasha  is 
common  to  all. 

157.  During  the  flow  of  the  Prithivi  are  performed 
acts  which  are  expected  to  live  long;  during  the  Apas 
passing  acts;  during  the  Tejas  harsh  acts;  during  the 
Vayu  killing,  etc. 

158.  Nothing  ought  to  be  done  during  the  Akasha 
except  the  practice  of  Yoga;  all  other  acts  will  remain 
without  their  desired  effect. 

159.  During  the  Prithivi  and  the  Apas  success  is 
obtained;  death  comes  in  the  Tejas;  reduction  in  the 
Vayu.     The  Akasha  is  known  by  the  tattvic  philo 
sophers  to  be  altogether  useless. 

160.  During  the  Prithivi  income  is  late;  during  the 
Apas,  immediate;  loss  is  made  manifest  by  the  Tejas 
and  the  Vayu ;  Akasha  is  altogether  useless. 

161.  The  Prithivi  Tattva  is  yellow,  has  slow  motion, 
moves  in  the  middle,  comes  in  its  flow  up  to  the  end 
of  the  sternum,  is  heavy  in  sound,  has  slight  heat  in 


temperature.     It    gives   success   in  works  which    are 
expected  to  stay  long. 

162.  The  Apas  Tattva  is  white,  has  rapid  motion, 
moves  downwards,  conies  in  its  flow  sixteen  fingers 
downwards   [np  to  the  navel],  is  heavy  in  sound,  is 
cool  in  temperature.     It  gives  success  in  auspicious 

163.  The   Tejas   Tattva    is   red,    moves   in   whirls 
(Avartagah),  moves  upwards,  comes  in  its  flow  four 
fingers  downwards  [up  to  the  end  of  the  chin],  is  very 
high  in  temperature.     It  gives  birth  to  harsh  actions 
[actions  which,  so  to  say,  set  one  on  fire]. 

164.  The  Vayu  Tattva  is  sky-blue,  moves  at  acute 
angles,  conies  in  flow  eight  fingers  downwards,  is  hot 
or   cool    in   temperature.     It   gives   success   in  those 
works  which  are  transitory. 

165.  The  Akasha  Tattva  is  the  common  surface  of 
all,   foreshadows  the  qualities  of  all  the  Tattvas.     It 
gives  Yoga  to  the  Yogis. 

166.  Yellow  and  quadrangular,  sweet  and  moving  in 
the  middle,  and  the  giver  of  enjoyment  is  the  Prithivi 
Tattva,  which  flows  twelve  fingers  downwards. 

167.  White,  semi-lunar,  astringent,  moving  down 
wards,  and  the  causer  of  benefit  is  the  Apas  Tattva, 
which  is  sixteen  fingers  in  flow. 

168.  Blue,  spherical,  acid,  moving  at  acute  angles, 
the  giver  of  locomotion  is  the  Vayu  Tattva,  which  is 
eight  fingers  in  flow. 

169.  Foreshadowing  all  colours,  of  the  shape  of  an 
ear,  bitter  in  taste,  moving  everywhere  through  the 


giver  of  Moksha  is  the  Akasha  Tattva,  which  is  use 
less  in  all  worldly  works. 

170.  The    Prithivi    and    the   Apas    are    auspicious 
Tattvas,    the   Tejas   is    moderate    in   its    effects,    the 
Akasha  and  Vayu  are  inauspicious  and  cause  loss  and 
death  to  mankind. 

171.  The  Apas  Tattva  is  in  the  east,  the  Prithivi  in 
the  west,  the  Vayu   in  the  north,   the  Tejas  in   the 
south,  the  Akasha  in  the  middle. 

172.  When  the  Prithivi  and  the  Apas  are  in  the 
moon,  and  the  Agni  in  the  sun,  then  verily  there  is 
success  in  mild  and  harsh  acts  respectively. 

173.  The  Prithivi  causes  income  during  the  day, 
the  Apas  during  the  night;  death  comes  in  the  Tejas; 
reduction  in  the  Vayu ;  the  Akasha  sometimes  burns. 

174.  In  fitness  for  living,  in  success,  in  income,  in 
cultivation  [or,  according  to  one  reading,  in  enjoyment 
and  growth],  in  amassing  wealth,  in  understanding  the 
meaning  of  the  Mantras,  in  questions  about  battle,  in 
going  and  coming, 

175.  Benefit  results  during  the  Apas  Tattva;  aus 
picious  stay,  wherever  it  is,  during  the  Prithivi;   by 
the  Vayu  they  go  away  elsewhere;  the  Akasha  and 
the  Tejas  cause  loss  and  death. 

176.  In  the    Prithivi   comes  the  thought  of   roots 
(Mula);    in    the  Apas  and  the  Vayu   that  of  living 
beings;  in  the  Tejas  comes  the  thought  of  minerals; 
in  the  Akasha  there  is  void. 

177.  In  the  Prithivi  one  thinks  of  [literally  there 
are]  beings  of  many  feet;  in  the  Apas  and  Vayu  of 


bipeds;  in  the  Tejas  of  quadrupeds;  in  the  Akasha  of 
the  footless. 

178.  Mars  is  said  to  be  the  Tejas,  the  Sun  the  Prith- 
ivi,  Saturn  the  Apas,  and  Rahu  the  Vayu  in  the  right 

179.  The  Moon  is  the  Apas,  Jupiter  the  Prithivi, 
Mercury  the  Vayu,  and  Venus  the  Tejas  in  the  left 
Nadi ;  for  all  acts  verily. 

[The  tattvic  value  of  the  planets  described  in  these 
two  verses  seems  to  be  the  opinion  of  a  few  only. 
The  opinion  of  the  writer,  which  is  also  the  opinion 
of  the  great  astrologer  Vardhamihira,  is  expressed  in 
stanza  180.] 

180.  Jupiter  is  the  Prithivi;  the  Moon  and  Venus 
are  the  Apas;  the  Sun  and  Mars  are  the  Tejas;  the 
Dragon,  the  Ketu,  and  Saturn  are  Vayu;  Mercury  is 
the  Akasha. 

181.  Say  during  the  Prithivi  that  the  question  is 
about  earthly  things  [roots,  Mfila] ;  during  the  Apas 
about  life;   during  the  Tejas  about  minerals;  during 
the  Akasha  about  nothing. 

182.  When  the  breath,   leaving   the   Sun   and  the 
Moon,  goes  to  the  Rahu  know  that  it  [Prana]  is  in 
motion  and  desires  another  place. 

183.  Pleasure  [i],  growth  [2],  affection  [3],  playful 
ness  [4],  success  [5],  laughing  [6],  in  the  Prithivi  and 
the  Apas;  want  of  power  to  work  in  the  organs  [7], 
fever  [8],  trembling  [9],   going  out  of  one's  country 
[10]  in  the  Tejas  and  Vayu. 

184.  Loss  of  the  life  substance  [n],  and  death  [12] 


in  the  Akasha— these  twelve  are  the  phases  of  the 
moon  [i.e.,  the  forms,  etc.,  which  the  negative  matter 
assumes] ;  they  ought  always  to  be  known  to  be  with 
pains  by  the  wise. 

[These  twelve  are  the  phases  of  the  moon.  The 
moon  here  means  the  power  which  gives  sustenance 
to  names  and  forms.  That  power,  the  Ravi,  appears 
in  twelve  forms,  according  to  tattvic  changes. 

The  flow  of  the  left  Nadi  in  its  diurnal  course  is 
not  meant  here.] 

185.  In    the   east,    the    west,   the    south,   and    the 
north,  the  Tattvas,  Prithivi,  etc.,  are  powerful,  so  let 
it  be  said. 

1 86.  Fair  one,  the  body  must  be  known  as  made  of 
the   five    Mahabhutas— the    Prithivi,    the    Apas,    the 
Tejas,  the  Vayu,  and  the  Akasha. 

187.  Bone,  muscle,  skin,  Nadi  and  hair— this  is  the 
five-fold  Prithivi  as  laid  down  by  the  Brahmvidya  [the 
divine  science]. 

188.  The  male  seed,  the  female  germs,  fat,  urine, 
and  saliva— this  is  the  five-fold  Apas  as  laid  down  by 
the  divine  science. 

189.  Hunger,  thirst,  sleep,  light,  drowsiness— this  is 
the  five-fold  Agni  as  laid  down  by  the  divine  science. 

190.  Removing,  walking,  smelling,  contraction  and 
inflation— this  is  the  five-fold  Vayu  as  laid  down  by  the 
divine  science. 

191.  Desire  to  have,  desire  to  repel,  shame,  fear  and 
forgetful  ness— this  is  the  five-fold  Akasha  as  laid  down 
by  the  divine  science. 


192.  The  Pritliivi  has  five  qualities,  the  Apas  four, 
the  Tejas  three,  the  Vayu  two,  the  Akasha  one.     This 
is  a  portion  of  tattvic  knowledge. 

193.  The   Pritliivi   is    fifty    Palas;    the    Apas   forty 
Palas;  the  Tejas  thirty;  the  Vayu  twenty;  the  Akasha 

194.  In  the  Pritliivi  income  is  delayed;  in  the  Apas 
it  conies  at  once;  in  the  Vayu  it  is  very  little;  in  the 
Agni  even  what  is  in  hand  is  destroyed. 

195.  [The  lunar  mansions]  Dhanishtha  [i],  Rohini 
[2],  Jyeshtha  [3],  Anaradha  [4],  Shravana  [5],  Abhijit 
[6],   and  Uttarashadha  [7] — these  are  said  to  be  the 
Pritliivi  Tattva. 

196.  Bharani  [i],   Krittika  [2],  Pushya  [3],  Magha 
[4],    Pfirvaphalguni    [5],    Purvabhadrapada    [6],    and 
Svati  [7],  these  are  said  to  be  the  Tejas  Tattva. 

197.  Purvashadha  [i],  Ashlesha  [2],  Mfila  [3],  Ardra 
[4],    Revati    [5],    Uttarabhadrapada    [6],    and   Shata- 
bhishaj  [7] — these  are  the  Apas  Tattva,  beloved! 

198.  Vishakha   [i],   Uttaraphalgum   [2],  Hasta  [3], 
Chitra  [4],  Punarvasu  [5],  Ashvini  [6],  and  Mrigashir- 
sha  [7] — these  are  the  Vayu  Tattva. 

199.  Whatever  good  or  evil  the  messenger  enquires 
about,  standing  towards  the  flowing  Nadi,  conies  not 
to  pass  as  he  desires.     In  the  empty  Nadi  it  is  the 

200.  Even  when  the  Nadi  is  full,  but  the  Tattva  is 
not  congenial,  there  is  no  success.      The  sun  or  the 
moon    gives   success  only  when    combined  with    the 
congenial  Tattva. 


201.  Rama  got  victory  in  an  auspicious  Tattva;  so 
did  Arjuna.     The  Kauravas  were  all  killed  in  battle 
on  account  of  the  antagonistic  Tattva. 

202.  By  the  acquired  rapidity  of  other  births,  or  by 
the  kindness  of  the  Guru,  some  men  come  to  know 
the   nature   of    the   Tattvas   by   a   mind   purified   by 

[Meditation  on  the  Five  Tattvasl\ 

203.  Meditate  upon  the  Prithivi  Tattva  with  L  [or 
Lam]  as  its  algebraical  symbol,  as  being  quadrangular, 
yellow,  sweet-smelling,    and   conferring   a   colour   as 
pure  as  that  of  gold,  freedom  from  disease  and  light 
ness  of  the  body. 

204.  Meditate   upon   the    Apas   Tattva  with  V  [or 
Vam]  as  its  algebraical  symbol,  as  being  semi-lunar, 
white  as  the  moon,  and  giving  endurance  of  hunger 
and  thirst,  etc.,  and  producing  a  sensation  similar  to 
that  of  a  plunge  in  water. 

205.  Meditate  upon  the  Tejas  Tattva  with  R  [or 
Ram]  as  the  algebraical  symbol,  as  being  triangular, 
red,   and    giving   the   power   of    consuming   a   great 
amount  of  food  and  drink,  and  the  endurance  of  burn 
ing  heat. 

206.  Meditate  upon  the  Vayti,  with  P  [or  Pain]  as 
the  algebraical  symbol,  as  being  spherical,  sky-blue, 
and  giving  the  power  of  going  into  space,  and  flying 
like  birds. 

207.  Meditate  upon  the  Akasha  Tattva  with  H  [or 
Ham]  as  the  algebraical  symbol,  formless,  foreshadow- 


ing  many  colours,  and  as  giving  the  knowledge  of  the 
three  times,  and  the  powers  Anima,  etc. 

208.  Where  there  is  a  man  who  knows  the  science 
of  breath,  there   can  be  no  wealth  better  than  him. 
It  is  known  that  by  the  knowledge  of  breath  one  gets 
good  fruit  without  much  ado. 

[77/6-  Auspicious  Victory^ 

Said  the  goddess: 

209.  Great  lord,  god  of  gods,  giver  of  happiness,  the 
science  of  the  rise  of  breath  is  a  very  lofty  science;  how 
does  it  comprehend  the  knowledge  of  the  three  times? 

Said  the  god : 

210.  Fair  one,  the  knowledge  of  three  times  refers 
to  three  things,  and  nothing  else: 

(i)  Fortune. 

(ii)  Victory  in  battle. 

(iii)  Good  or  bad  [end  of  other  actions]. 

211.  On  account  of  the  Tattva  any  act  is  good  or 
bad  in  effect;  on  account  of  the  Tattva  comes  victory 
or    discomfiture;    on    account    of    the    Tattva    comes 
scarcity  and  abundance  of  wealth.     The  Tattvas  are 
said  to  show  themselves  in  these  three  states. 

vSaid  the  goddess: 

212.  Great  lord,  god  of  gods,  the  all-comprehending 
ocean  of  this  world  is  the  greatest  friend  and  help 
mate  of  men;   [is  it]  he  who  causes  the  fulfilment  of 
all  his  works? 

Said  the  god: 

213.  The   Prana  alone    is    the    highest   friend,   the 


Prana  is  the  greatest  helpmate.     Fair  one,  there  is  no 
friend  better  than  Prana. 

Said  the  goddess: 

214.  How   does   the   force  of  Prana   stand    in   the 
body?    What  is  the  appearance  of  Prana  in  the  body? 
How  is  the  Prana  known  by  the  Yogis  to  be  acting 
in  the  Tattvas? 

Said  the  god : 

215.  In  the  city  of  the  body  the  Prana  is  the  lord 
protector;    while   going   in,   it   is   ten    fingers,   while 
going  out,  twelve. 

[This  section  refers  to  the  human  Aura.  The 
subtle  Prana  surrounds  the  human  gross  body  like  a 
halo  of  light.  The  natural  length  from  the  body  to 
the  circumference  of  this  halo  is  twelve  fingers  of 
the  man  whose  Prana  is  measured.  This  length  is 
affected  during  the  ordinary  course  of  inspiration  and 
expiration.  At  the  time  of  inspiration  the  length  is 
reduced  to  ten  fingers;  at  the  time  of  expiration  it  is 
restored  to  twelve.  During  certain  other  actions,  too, 
the  length  varies.  Thus,  in  walking,  the  length  of 
Prana  becomes  twenty-four;  in  running  forty-two. 
In  cohabitation,  it  becomes  sixty-five;  in  sleeping, 
one  hundred.  In  eating  and  speaking,  it  becomes 

In  ordinary  men,  the  length  is  twelve  fingers.  The 
ordinary  length  is,  however,  reduced  in  extraordinary 
men.  Thus: 

In  those  men  who  are  free  from  desire,  the  length 
of  Prana  is  reduced  by  one  finger;  it  becomes  eleven. 


In  men  who  arc  always  pleasant,  always  hilarious, 
the  length  is  ten  fingers. 

A  poet  has  nine  fingers,  a  speaker  has  eight,  a  seer 
has  seven,  a  levitator  has  six,  and  so  on.] 

216.  In  walking  it  is  twenty-four  fingers,  in  running 
forty-two;    in    cohabitation  sixty-five;    in   sleeping   a 
hundred  fingers. 

217.  The  natural   length   of   Prana,   O   goddess,  is 
twelve  fingers.     In  eating  and  speaking  it  stretches  to 
eighteen  fingers. 

218.  When  the  Prana  is  reduced  by  one  finger  free 
dom  from  desire  is  the  result.     Pleasure  results  when 
it  is  reduced  by  two;  poetical  power  when  by  three; 

219.  Power  of  speech  when  by  four;  second  sight 
when  by  five ;  levitation  when  by  six ;  great  rapidity 
when  by  seven; 

220.  The  eight  Siddhis  when  by  eight;   the  nine 
Nidhis  when  by  nine;  the  ten  figures  when  by  ten; 
the  loss  of  the  shadow  when  by  eleven; 

221.  When  it  is  reduced  by  twelve  the  inspiratory 
and  expiratory  motions  drink  of  the  fountain  of  im 
mortality  in  the  sun  [the  centre  of  Prana].    When  the 
Prana  fills  the  body  up  to  the  end  of  the  nails  even, 
for  whom  then  is  food? 

222.  Thus  has  been  described  the  law  of  Prana.     It 
can  be  known  by  the  teaching  of  a  Guru,   not  by 
millions  of  sciences  and  Shastras. 

223.  If  by  chance  the  moon  does  not  set  in  in  the 
morning,   and    the   sun    in  the    evening,   they  do  so 
respectively  after  mid-day  and  midnight. 



224.  In   warfare    in  distant  countries  the  moon   is 
victorious;   in   near  places  the  sun.     When  the  foot 
raised  first  in  walking  belongs  to  the  flowing  Nadi, 
complete  success  is  the  result. 

225.  In  beginning  a  journey,  in  marriage,  in  enter 
ing  any  town,  etc.,  in  all  auspicious  acts,  the  flow  of 
the  moon  is  good. 

226.  By  putting  the  enemy's  army  towards  the  empty 
Nadi,  and  one's  own  towards  the  full,  when  the  Tattva 
is  congenial,  one  may  conquer  the  whole  world. 

227.  Let  one  give  battle  in  the  direction  towards 
which   the  breath  flows;   victory  is  certain,  even  if 
Indra  be  in  front. 

228.  If  a  man  puts  a  question  about  battle,  he  will 
win  if  he  is  towards  the  flowing  Nadi;  will  lose  if  he 
is  towards  the  other. 

229.  The  Prithivi  Tattva  points  to  wounds  in  the 
belly;  the  Apas  in  the  feet;  the  Agni  in  the  thighs; 
the  Vayu  in  the  hands; 

230.  The    Akasha    in    the   head.     These    five-fold 
wounds  have  been  described  in  the  Science  of  Breath. 

231.  He  whose  name  has  even  letters  wins,  if  lie 
asks  the  question  during  the  flow  of  the  moon.     He 
who  has  an  odd  number  of  letters  in  his  name  wins  if 
he  asks  the  question  during  the  flow  of  the  sun. 

232.  When  the  question  is  put  during  the  moon 
there  will  be  a  peaceful  termination ;  during  the  sun 
the  fight  must  come. 

233.  During  the  Prithivi  Tattva,  the  fight  will  be 


equal.  During  the  Apas  the  result  will  be  equal. 
During  the  Tejas  there  will  be  defeat.  During  the 
Yuyu  and  the  Akasha  death  will  ensue. 

234.  When  by  some  cause  the  flow  of  the  breath  is 
not  clearly  felt  at  the  time  of  the  question,  let  the  wise 
man  resort  to  the  following  expedient. 

235.  Sitting  motionless  let  him  have  a  flower  thrown 
upon  himself.    The  flower  will  fall  on  the  full  side.    So 
let  him  give  the  answer. 

236.  Here  or  elsewhere  the  knower  of  the  laws  of 
breath  is  very  powerful;  who  is  more  powerful  than 

Said  the  goddess: 

237.  These  are  the  laws  of  victory  when  men  fight 
among  themselves;  how  does  victory  come  when  they 
fight  with  Yama  [the  god  of  death]. 

Said  the  god : 

238.  Let   him   meditate   upon    the   lord  when   the 
Prana  is  calm;  during  the  flow  of  the  moon  and  then 
give  up  life  when  after  that  the  two  Pranas  coincide. 
He    will    have   what    he   desires — great    benefit    and 

239.  The  whole  manifested  world  has  come  out  of 
the  unmanifested.     That  manifested  world  disappears 
in  the  unmanifested  when  the  fact  is  known. 

[The  Year.} 

260.  On  the  first  lunar  day  of  the  white  fortnight  of 
the  month  of  Chaitra,  let  the  wise  Yogi  see  both  the 


northward  and  southward  journey  of  the  sun  by  an 
analysis  of  the  Tattvas. 

[On  this  day  begins  the  Samvat  year  of  the  era  of 
King  Vikramaditya.] 

261.  If  at  the  time  of  the  rise  of  the  moon,  the 
Prithivi,  the  Apas,  or  the  Vayu  Tattva  be  flowing,  all 
kinds  of  grain  will  be  plentiful. 

262.  The  flow  of  the  Tejas  and  the  Akasha  gives 
fearful  famines.     This  is  the  nature  of  time.     In  this 
way  is  known  the  effect  of  time  in  the  year,  the  month, 
and  the  day. 

263.  If  the  Sushumna,  which  is  bad  in  all  worldly 
concerns,  be  flowing,  there  will  be  confusion  in  the 
land,    subversion    of    the   kingdom,    or   fear   thereof, 
epidemic  and  all  sorts  of  diseases. 

264.  When  the  sun  passes  into  Aries,  let  the  Yogi 
meditate  upon  the  breath,  and,  finding  out  the  pre 
valent  Tattva,  tell  the  world  what  will  be  the  nature 
of  the  next  year. 

[On  this  day  begins  the  solar  year.  The  tattvic 
colour  of  universal  Prana — the  external  one — at  any 
time  is  determined  by  the  positions  of  the  sun  and 
moon  and  by  those  of  the  planets,  whose  presence 
exercises  a  very  potent  influence  upon  the  tattvic  value 
of  any  moment.  This  tattvic  value  changes  according 
to  a  universal  law. 

If  at  any  time  the  Apas  Tattva  is  flowing,  it  can 
never  abruptly  pass  into  the  Tejas,  but  must  do  so 
grade  by  grade.  These  atmospheric  Tattvas  run 
many  minor  courses.  Hence  it  is  possible,  though 


extremely  difficult  and  complicated,  to  calculate  from 
the  tattvic  value  of  one  moment  the  tattvic  value  of 
any  future  moment. 

The  living  world  is  always  affected  by  these  tattvic 
changes.  In  the  act  of  breathing  nature  has  furnished 
a  very  exact  and  faithful  scale  for  the  measurement  of 
tattvic  changes.  Hence  the  Yogi,  who  can  live  in 
conformity  with  time  and  space  can  foretell  the  future 
very  easily.  Ah!  but  how  difficult  is  it  to  live  in 
perfect  conformity  with  time  and  space !] 

265.  The  good  aspect  of  the  year,  the  month,  and 
the  day  is  known  by  the  Tattvas,  Prithivi,  etc.,  and 
the  bad  one  by  the  Akasha  and  the  Vayu. 

266.  If  the  Prithivi  Tattva  flows  there  will  be  plenty 
and  prosperity  in  the  kingdom,  and  the  earth  will  be 
full  of  good  crops;  there  will  be  much  comfort  and 

267.  If  the  Apas  Tattva  flows  there  will  be  plenty 
of  rain,  plenty  of  grain,  no  want,  great  comfort,  and 
well-grown  fields. 

268.  If  the  Agni  Tattva  flows  there  will  be  famine, 
subversion,  or  fear  thereof;  there  will  be  fearful  epi 
demics  and  the  least  possible  rain. 

269.  If  the  Vayu  Tattva  flows  when  the  sun  goes 
into  Aries,  there  will  be  confusion,  accidents,  famine, 
little  rain,  or  the  Itis. 

[The  Itis  are  six  afflictions  which  distress  the  crops 
— too  much  rain,  etc.] 

270.  If  the  Akasha  Tattva  flows  when  the  sun  goes 
into  Aries,  there  will  be  want  of  grain  and  of  comfort. 


271.  When  the  full  breath  is  in  its  own  proper  place, 
with  its  own  proper  Tattvas,  success  of  all  sorts  is  the 
result.    If  the  sun  and  the  moon  are  the  reverse,  grain 
must  be  laid  up  [against  a  scarcity]. 

272.  If  the   Agni   Tattva   flows  there  will  be  in 
equality  of  prices;  if  Akasha,  there  will  be  continuous 
scarcity.     Let  things  be  laid  up  then;  there  will  be  a 
rise  in  the  prices  two  months  thereafter. 

273.  When  the  breath  is  changing  into  the  sun  it 
gives  birth  to  fearful  diseases.     When  the  Akasha  and 
the  Vayu  are  conjoined  with  the  Tejas,  the  earth  will 
become  the  picture  of  hell. 

[The  disturbance  of  tattvic  balance  is  disease;  hence 
every  Tattva  has  its  own  diseases.] 


274.  In  the  Prithivi  Tattva  there  is  its  own  disease; 
in  the  Apas  Tattva  the  disease  of  the  same  Tattva; 
and  so  in  the  Tejas,  the  Vayu,  and  the  Akasha,  similar 
and  hereditary  diseases. 

[When  two  men  come  together  their  Pranas  ex 
change  colour.  It  is  on  this  account  that  one  can 
measure  from  the  momentary  reflection  in  one's  own 
body  the  colour  of  any  other  man  that  is  near  him. 
The  present  of  every  man  is  the  father  of  his  future. 
Hence  one  can  predict  the  end  of  any  disease,  or  the 
time  of  death. 

All  that  has  been  ascertained  to  be  true  on  these 
heads  has  been  described  in  the  various  sections  of 
this  book.] 


275.  When  the  messenger  [querent]  comes  first  to 
wards  the  empty  half  of  the  body,  and  then  towards 
the  full  half,  he  about  whom  the  question  is  put  will 
surely  live,   even  if  he  be  [apparently]  lying  in  the 
swoon  [of  death]. 

276.  If  the  question  is  put  to  the  Yogi  while  sitting 
in  the  same  direction  with  the  patient,  he  will  live 
even   though   many   a    disease    may    have    gathered 
strength  in  his  body. 

277.  When  the  breath  is  in  the  right  nostril,  and 
the   messenger    speaks    of    his   affliction    in    piteous 
accents,  the  patient  will  live.     During  the  moon  the 
effect  is  ordinary. 

2/8.  If  the  question  be  asked  while  holding  the 
picture  of  the  patient  towards  the  Prana  and  looking 
at  it,  the  patient  will  live. 

279.  When  during  the  flow  of  the  sun  or  moon,  the 
Yogi  gets  into  a  carriage  and  the  question  is  put  to 
him  while  there,  the  messenger  will  have  success  in 
his  desire. 

280.  When  at  the  time  of  the  question  the  Yogi 
sits  upstairs  while  the  patient  is  downstairs,  he  will 
certainly  live.      If  the  patient   be   upstairs,    he   will 
certainly  go  to  the  house  of  Yama  [the  god  of  death]. 

281.  If  at  the  time  of  the  question  the  messenger  is 
towards  the  empty  nostril,  but  speaks  the  reverse  of 
what  he  desires,  he  will  have  success.     If  the  reverse 
is  the  case,  the  result  too  is  the  reverse. 

282.  When  the  patient  is   towards   the  moon  and 
the  asker  towards  the  sun  the  patient  will  certainly 


die,  even  if  he  be  surrounded  by  hundreds  of  phy 

283.  When  the  patient  is  towards  the  sun,  and  the 
asker  towards  the  moon,   then  too  the  patient  dies, 
even  if  Sambhii  be  his  protector. 

284.  When   one  Tattva  is  out  of  its  proper  time, 
people  are  subdued  by  disease;  when  two  are  wrong, 
they  cause  misfortune  to  friends  and  relations;    if  it 
is  out  of  place  for  two  fortnights  death  is  the  result. 

[The  Prediction  of  Dcath^\ 

285.  At  the  beginning  of  a  month,  a  fortnight,  and 
a  year,  let  the  wise  man  try  to  find  out  the  time  of 
death  from  the  movements  of  the  Prana. 

286.  The  lamp  of  the  five  Tattvas  receives  its  oil 
from  the  moon.     Protect  it  from  the  solar  force;  life 
will  thereby  become  long  and  stationary. 

287.  If  by  mastering  the  flow  of  breath,  the  sun  is 
kept  in  check,  life  is  prolonged.     Even  solar  time  is 

288.  The  moon  falls  from  heaven  giving  the  nectar 
of  life  to  the  lotuses  of  the  body.     By  the  constant 
practice  of  good  actions  and  Yoga  one  becomes  im 
mortal  by  the  lunar  nectar. 

289.  Make  the  moon  flow  during  the  day,  the  sun 
during  the  night.     He  who  practises  thus  is  verily  a 
true  Yogi. 

290.  If  for  one  night  and  day  the  breath  flows  con 
tinuously  by  one  Nadi,  death  will  ensue  in  three  years. 

291.  He  whose   breath   flows   by  the   Pingala  two 


whole    days    and    nights    continuously    has,    as    the 
knowers  of  the  Tattvas  say,  two  years  more  to  live. 

292.  If  the   moon   continuously  flows   during   the 
night  and  the  sun  during  the  day,  death  will  come 
within  six  months. 

293.  When  the  sun  flows  altogether,  and  the  moon 
is  altogether  unseen,  death  comes  in  a  fortnight.     So 
says  the  Science  of  Death. 

294.  He  whose  breath  flows  from  one   nostril   for 
three  nights  continuously  has,  so  say  the  wise,  a  year 
only  to  live. 

295.  Take  a  vessel  of  the  Kansiya  alloy  [bell-metal]. 
Fill  it  with  water,  and  see  in  it  the  reflection  of  the 
sun.     If  in  the  midst  of  the  reflection  is  seen  a  hole 
the  seer  will  die  within  ten  days.     If  the  reflection  is 
smoky,  death  will  come  the  same  day.     If  it  is  seen 
towards   the   south,  west,  or  north  death  will  come 
within  six,  two  or  three  months  respectively.     Thus 
has  been  described  the  measure  of  life  by  the  omni 

296.  If  a  man  sees  the  figure  of  the  messenger  of 
death  he  is  sure  to  die. 

[The  messenger  of  death  has  red  or  reddish  clothes, 
matted  hair,  diseased  teeth,  oil-besmeared  body,  a 
weeping  and  red-hot  face,  a  body  besmeared  with 
ashes,  flying  flames  of  fire,  having  long  heavy  rods, 
and  standing  towards  the  empty  Nadi.] 

297.  When  the  skin  is  cool  but  the  inside  is  hot, 
death  must  come  within  a  month. 

298.  When  a  man  changes  suddenly  and  unaccount- 


ably  from  good  habits  to  bad,  or  from  bad  habits  to 
good,  he  is  sure  to  die. 

299.  He  whose  breath  coining  out  of  the  nose  is 
cool,  but  corning  out  of  the  mouth  is  hot  like  fire,  is 
sure  to  die  of  great  heat. 

300.  He  who  sees  hideous  figures,  and  bright  light 
without    making    out    the    flame,    dies    before    nine 

301.  He  who  suddenly  begins  to  feel  heavy  bodies 
light,  and  light  bodies  heavy,  and  he  who  being  dark 
in  colour  begins  in  disease  to  look  gold -coloured,  must 

302.  He  whose  hands,  chest,  and  feet  become  at  once 
dry  after  bathing,  has  not  ten  nights  to  live. 

303.  He  who  becomes  dim  of  sight,  and  cannot  see 
his  face  in  the  pupil  of  another's  eye  must  assuredly 

304.  Now   will    I   tell    thee   something  about   the 
shadow-figure  (Chhaya  Purusha).    Xnowing  this,  man 
very  soon  becomes  the  knower  of  the  three  times. 

305.  I  shall  speak  of  those  experiments  by  means  of 
which  even  distant  death  is  known.     I  shall  describe 
all  these  in  accordance  with  Shivagama. 

306.  Going  to  a  lonely  place  and  standing  with  the 
back  towards  the  sun  let  a  man  look  with  attention  at 
the  neck  of  the  shade  he  throws  on  the  ground. 

307.  Let  him  see  this  for  as  long  a  time  as  he  can 
calmly  repeat  the  words:   "Om  kram  parabrahmane 
namah"  for  one  hundred  and  eight  times.     Then  let 
him  look  up  into  the  sky.     He  will  thus  see  Shankara 


[the  figure  of  a  being  capable  of  appearing  in  many 

308.  By  doing  this  for  six  months,  the  Yogi  becomes 
the  lord  of  those  who  walk  on  earth ;  in  two  years  he 
becomes  absolutely  independent  and  his  own  master. 

309.  He  obtains  the  knowledge  of  the  three  times 
and  great  bliss.     There  is  nothing  impossible  for  the 
constant  practice  of  Yoga. 

310.  The  Yogi  who  sees  this   figure   in  the  clear 
heavens  having  a  dark  colour,  dies  within  six  months. 

311.  When  it  is  yellow  there  is  fear  of  disease;  when 
it  is  red  there  will  be  loss;  when  it  has  many  colours 
there  will  be  great  confusion  and  dejection. 

312.  If    the    figure    be    wanting    in    feet,    shanks, 
abdomen  and  the  right  arm  a  relation  is  sure  to  die. 

313.  If  the  left  arm  is  wanting  the  wife  will  die; 
when  the  chest  and  the  right  arm  is  wanting,  death 
and  destruction  will  come. 

314.  When  the  faeces  and  gas  escape  together,  the 
man  is  sure  to  die  in  ten  days. 

315.  When  the  moon  flows  altogether,  and  the  sun 
is  not  seen  at  all,  death  comes  surely  in  a  month.     So 
says  the  Science  of  Death. 

316.  Those  whose  death  is  near  cease  to  see  the 
Arandhati,  the  Dhruva,  the  steps  of  Vishnu,  and  the 
circle  of  the  mothers  as  they  are  pointed  out  to  them. 

317.  The  Arandhati  is  the  tongue;  the  Dhruva  the 
tip  of  the  nose ;  the  eyebrows  are  the  steps  of  Vishnu ; 
the  pupil  of  the  eye  the  circle  of  the  mothers. 

318.  The  man  who  ceases  to  see  the  eyebrows  dies 


within  nine  days;  he  who  ceases  to  see  the  pupil  of 
the  eye  dies  within  five  days ;  he  who  ceases  to  see  the 
nose  dies  within  three  days ;  he  who  ceases  to  see  the 
tongue  dies  within  one  day. 

319.  The  pupil  of  the  eye  is  seen  by  pressing  the 
eye  near  the  nose. 

[The  Nddts.} 

320.  The  Ida  is  also  technically  called  Ganga;  the 
Pingala  Yamuna;  the  Sushumna  Sarasvati;  the  con 
junction  is  called  Prayaga. 

321.  Let  the  Yogi  sit  in  the  posture  called  Padma- 
sana,  and  perform  Pranayama. 

322.  The  Yogis  must  know  the  Piiraka,  the  Rechaka, 
and  the  third,  Kumbhaka,  for  obtaining  power  over 
the  body. 

323.  The  Puraka  causes  growth  and  nourishment, 
and  equalizes  the   humours;   the   Kumbhaka  causes 
stability,  and  increases  the  security  of  life. 

324.  The  Rechaka  takes  away  all  sins.      He  who 
practises  this  reaches  the  state  of  Yoga. 

325.  In  the  Kumbhaka  hold  the  air  in  as  much  as 
possible;  let  it  go  out  by  the  moon  and  in  by  the  sun. 

326.  The  sun  drinks  the  moon,  the  moon  drinks  the 
sun;  by  saturating  one  with  the  other,  one  may  live  as 
long  as  the  moon  and  the  planets. 

327.  The   Nfidi  flows   in  one's   own   body.      Have 
power  over  that;  if  it  is  not  let  go  through  the  mouth 
or  nose,  one  becomes  a  young  man. 

328.  When   the   mouth,    nose,  eyes,   and    ears   are 


stopped  by  the  fingers,  the  Tattvas  begin  to  take  their 
rise  before  the  eyes. 

329.  He  who  knows  their  colour,  their  motion,  their 
taste,  their  places,  and  their  signs,  becomes  in  this 
world  equal  to  the  god  Rudra. 

330.  He  who  knows  all  this,  and  reads  it  always,  is 
freed  from  all  pain  and  gets  what  he  desires. 

331.  He  who  has  the  knowledge  of  breath  in  his 
head,  has  fortune  at  his  feet. 

332.  Like  the  One  in  the  Vedas,  and  the  sun  in  the 
universe,  is  the  knower  of  the  Science  of  Breath  to 
be  honoured.     He  who  knows  the  Science  of  Breath 
and  the  Philosophy  of  the  Tattvas,  knows  that  even 
millions  of  elixirs  are  not  equal  to  it. 

334.  There  is  nothing  in  the  world  which  will  release 
you  of  the  debt  of  the  man  who  gives  you  the  know 
ledge  of  the  word  [Om]  and  of  breath. 

335.  Sitting  in  his  own  place,  with  measured  food, 
and  sleep,  let  the  Yogi  meditate  upon  the  highest  Atma 
[whose  reflection  the  Breath  is].     Whatever  he  says 
will  come  to  pass. 




ABHIJIT,  one  of  the  lunar  mansions. 

ABHINIVESHA,  the  technical  name  for  that  weakness  of  the  mind 
which  causes  fear  of  death.  It  is  one  of  the  five  "miseries"  of 
the  Yogis. 

AGAMA,  one  of  the  three  means  of  knowledge.  The  knowledge 
which  comes  to  us  from  the  experience  of  researches  of  others, 
which  we  take  on  authority,  is  said  to  come  from  Agama.  The 
Vedas  are  called  Agama  for  the  same  reason. 

Aoxi,  fire.  A  name  of  the  luminiferous  ether,  otherwise  called 
the  Tejas  Tattva.  Its  colour  is  red.  Other  colours  result  from 
a  composition  with  other  Tattvas. 

AHANKARA,  egoism. 

AHAVANIYA,  one  of  three  fires  which  were  maintained  in  an  ancient 
Hindu  household. 

AKASHA,  the  name  of  the  first  Tattva,  the  sonoriferous  ether. 
This  is  a  very  important  Tattva.  All  the  other  Tattvas  come 
out  of  it,  and  live  and  work  in  it.  All  the  forms  and  ideas  of 
the  universe  live  in  it.  There  is  no  living  thing  in  the  world 
which  is  not  preceded  by  Akasha  or  followed  by  it.  This  is 
that  state  from  which  we  may  expect  every  other  substance 
and  every  other  Tattva  to  immediately  come  out,  or,  more 
strictly,  in  which  everything  is,  but  is  not  seen. 

AI.AMBUSHA,  or  ALAMMUKHA,  a  tube  in  the  human  body  which 
is  said  to  open  in  the  mouth;  therefore  the  alimentary  canal. 

AMBAIUSHA,  one  of  the  five  hells.  The  qualities  of  the  Apas 
Tattva  are  found  here  in  painful  excess. 

AMRITA,  the  nectar  of  the  gods. 

ANANDA,  that  state  of  bliss  in  which  the  soul  merges  into  the  spirit. 
It  also  means  the  spiritual  state  of  tattvic  atmosphere. 


ANANDAMAYA  KOSHA,  the  spiritual  coil,  the  spiritual  monad. 

ANARADHA,  the  seventeenth  lunar  mansion. 

ANDHATAMISHRA,  the  hell  where  the  qualities  of  the  Akasha  Tattv.i 

are  found  in  painful  excess. 
ANUMANA,  inference. 
APANA,  that  manifestation  of  the  life  principle  which  throws  out 

of  the  system  things  which  it  no  longer  requires,  such  as  faeces, 

urine,  etc. 
APANTARTAMAH,  a  Vedic  Rishi,  said  to  have  incarnated  as  Vyasa 

Krishna  Dvaipayana,  the  author  of  the  Mahuhhdrata,  etc. 
APAS,  the  name  of  one  of  the  five  Tattvas,  translated  into  English 

as  the  gustiferous  ether. 
ARDRA,  one  of  the  lunar  asterisms. 
ASAMpRAjiNATA,  the  higher  state  of  mental  trance,  in  which  the 

mind  is  perfectly  absorbed  in  the  soul.   The  lower  state  is  known 

as  Samprajnata. 

ASAT,  the  negative  breath  or  phase  of  matter. 
ASHLESHA,  a  lunar  mansion. 
ASHViNi,  the  first  lunar  mansion. 
ASMITA,  (i)  a  synonym  of  Ahankara;  egoism,     (ii)  Making  part  or 

parcel  of  self,     (iii)  The  notion  that  the  self  is  nothing  separate 

from  percepts  and  concepts. 
AVIDYA,  false  knowledge. 

BHARANI,  the  second  lunar  mansion. 

BHI")TAS,  the  shells  of  the  departed  spirits. 

BRAHMA  (with  the  short  a),  also  known  as  Parabrahman,  the  One 

Absolute,  from  which  comes  out  the  universe. 
BRAHMA  (with  the  long  a),  the  self-conscious  universe,  the  sixth 

principle  of  the  universe. 
BRAHMADANDA,  the  vertebral  column. 
BRAHMANDA,  the  universe.     Literally,  the  Egg  of  Brahma. 
BRAHMARANDHRA,  the  hole  in  the  head  through  which  the  soul 

of  the  Yogi  passes  out  of  the  body.     The  spinal  canal  ends  in 


BRAHMAVIDYA,  the  Divine  Science,  Theosophia. 
BUDDHI,  understanding. 



CH,  the  symbol  for  one  of  those  vessels  which  emanate  from  the 

CHH,  the  symbol  for  another  of  them. 

CHAITRA,  a  lunar  month  of  the  Indian  Calendar,  corresponding 
generally  to  February-March. 

CHAKRA,  a  circle,  a  disc. 

CHAKSHUS,  the  eye;  the  ocular  modification  of  Prana. 

CHAXDRA,  the  moon,  the  left  breath. 

CHANDRAI,OK:A,  the  lunar  sphere. 

CHATURYUGA,  the  four  Yugas— Satya,  Treta,  Dvapara  and  Kali- 
put  together;  a  period  of  12,000  Daiva  years. 

CHHANDOGYA,  the  name  of  a  Upanishad,  a  class  of  treatises  on 
the  Indian  Ksoteric  Philosophy. 

CHITRA,  one  of  the  lunar  asterisms. 

DAIVA,  pertaining  to  the  gods  (Devas).  A  Daiva  day  =  one  year  of 
men.  A  Daiva  year  =  365  such  days. 

DAMINI,  the  name  of  one  of  the  vessels  of  the  human  body,  pro 
bably  the  one  with  all  its  ramifications  which  proceeds  to  the 
breast  of  the  female  (?).  I  have  not  yet  found  it  described  any 

DKVACHAN,  a  Tibetan  term  now  used  in  English  to  denote  that 
state  of  bliss  which  one  enjoys,  after  death,  in  the  lunar  sphere. 

DEVADATTA,  one  of  the  ten  modifications  of  the  life  principle. 

DHANANJAYA,  one  of  the  ten  modifications  of  the  life  principle. 

DHANISHTHA,  a  lunar  mansion. 

DHARANA,  concentration  of  the  mind. 

DRKSHKANA,  the  third  part  of  a  sign  of  the  Zodiac. 

DUHKKHA,  pain. 

DVADASHANSHA,  the  twelfth  part  of  a  sign  of  the  Zodiac. 

DVKSHA,  that  manifestation  of  the  mind  which  repels  disagreeable 

G,  the  symbol  for  one  of  the  vessels  which  branch  from  the  heart. 
GANDHARI,  the  Nadi  which  goes  to  the  left  eye. 
GANDHARVA,  a  heavenly  musician. 
GAXGA,  a  technical  term  for  the  sun  breath. 


GARGYA  SAURYAYANA,  the   name  of  an  ancient   philosophical 

student  mentioned  in  the  Upanishads. 
GARHAPATYA,  one  of  the  three  household  fires. 
GH,  the  symbol  for  one  of  the  tubes  which  proceed  from  the  heart 

to  branch  off  all  over  the  body. 
GHARI,  or  GHATI,  (i)  a  period  of  twenty-four  minutes,    (ii)  A  lunar 

Ghati  is  somewhat  less — one-sixtieth  of  a  lunar  day. 
GHRANA,   the  organ  of  smell,   the   odoriferous    modification  of 


HA,     i  (i)  the  technical  symbol  for  the  process  of  expiration,    (ii) 
HAM,  ;  The  symbol  for  the  Akasha  Tattva,  the  neuter  nominative 

of  the  same. 
HAMSA,  from  Ham  and  Sa,  is  the  technical  name  of  Parabrahman, 

because  in  this  state  both  the  positive  and  negative  motions  lie 

in  posse. 

HAMSACHARA,  the  technical  term  for  the  process  of  breathing. 
HASTA,  a  lunar  mansion. 

HASTIJIHVA,  a  Nadi  which  goes  to  the  right  eye. 
HORA,  the  half  of  a  Zodiacal  sign. 

IDA,  the  Nadi  which  spreads  in  the  left  part  of  the  body;  the  left 


INDRA,  the  ruler  of  the  gods;  the  wielder  of  the  thunderbolt. 
ISHOPANISHAD,  the  name  of  a  Upanishad. 
ISHVARA,  the  sixth  principle  of  the  universe  (according  to  the 

septenary  division);  the  same  as  Brahma. 

J,  the  symbol  for  one  of  the  twelve  stem  Nadis  which  branch  off 

from  the  heart. 
JAGRATA,  the  waking  state. 
JH,  the  symbol  for  one  of  the  stem  Nadis  proceeding  from  the 

JYKSHTHA,  a  lunar  mansion. 

K,  the  symbol  for  one  of  the  Nadis  proceeding  from  the  heart. 
KAJ.A,  a  division  of  time  =*  i  *  minutes. 


KALASUTRA,  the  name  of  a  hell   in  which  the  qualities  of  the 
Vayu  Tattva  are  found  in  painful  excess. 

KAIJ,   the    name   of   a   cycle   of   2,400   Daiva   years.      The    Iron 

KAMAI,A,  the  lotus.     A  centre  of  nervous  force  in  the  body. 

KANSIYA,  an  alloy  of  zinc   and  copper,   largely  used  in  making 

KASHTHA,  a  division  of  time  =  3  }  seconds. 

KATHOPANISIIAD,  one  of  the  Upanishads. 

KH,  the  symbol  for  a  Nadi  proceeding  from  the  heart. 

KOMAI.A,  literally,  soft. 

KRAM,  the  Tantrik  symbol  for  the  idea  of  the  human  mind,  step 
ping  beyond  the  ordinary  bounds  of  the  visible  and  thus  looking 
into  the  invisible.  The  ancient  Tantrik  philosophers  had  sym 
bols  to  denote  almost  every  idea.  This  was  absolutely  necessary 
to  them,  because  they  held  that  if  the  human  mind  were  fixed 
upon  any  object  with  sufficient  strength  for  a  certain  time,  it 
was  sure  by  the  force  of  will  to  attain  the  object.  The  attention 
was  secured  generally  by  constantly  muttering  certain  words, 
and  thus  keeping  the  idea  always  before  the  mind.  Symbols 
were  therefore  used  to  denote  every  idea.  Thus  "Hrien"  de 
notes  modesty,  "Kliw"  denotes  love,  "Aiw"  denotes  protection, 
"Shaum"  denotes  welfare,  and  so  on.  Similar  symbols  were 
used  to  name  blood-vessels,  etc.  The  Tantrik  science  is  now 
almost  entirely  lost;  there  is  at  present  no  available  compre 
hensive  key  to  the  symbolical  terminology,  and  much  of  the 
symbolical  language  is,  therefore,  unfortunately,  up  to  the  pre 
sent  time,  simply  unintelligible. 
KRIKII,A,  that  manifestation  of  the  life  principle  which  causes 


KRITTIKA,  the  third  lunar  mansion. 
KUHU,  that  Nadi  which  goes  to  the  generative  organs. 
KUMBHAKA,  the   practice   in   Pranayama  of  drawing   as   deep   a 
breath  as  possible  and  holding  the  inspired  air  in  as  long  as 

Kf'RMA,    that   manifestation    of   the   life   principle    which    cause: 

twinklings  of  the  eye. 


LAM  (L),  the  symbol  for  the  Prithivi  Tattva. 
LOKA,  a  sphere  of  being. 

MAGHA,  the  tenth  lunar  mansion. 

MAHABHUTA,  a  synonym  of  Tattva. 

MAHAKALA,  the  hell  in  which  the  qualities  of  the  Prithivi  Tattva 
are  found  in  painful  excess. 

MAHAMOHA,  one  of  the  five  miseries  of  Patanjali.  A  synonym  of 
Raga  (desire  to  obtain  or  retain). 

MAHESHVARA,  the  great  Lord,  the  great  Power. 

MAHURTA,  a  division  of  time  =  forty-eight  minutes. 

MANAS,  mind;  the  third  principle  of  the  universe  from  below. 

MANOMAYA  KOSHA,  the  mental  coil.  The  individualized  mind 
which  is,  as  it  were,  a  sheath  for  the  spiritual  energy  to  manifest 
itself  in,  in  the  particular  way  we  find  the  mind  working. 

MANU,  the  Being  conceived  as  the  substratum  of  the  third  prin 
ciple  of  the  universe  from  below.  The  idea  of  the  humanity  of 
one  of  those  cycles  known  as  Manvantaras. 

MANUSHA,  pertaining  to  men;  human.  Manusha  day,  the  ordi 
nary  day  of  twenty- four  hours;  Manusha  year,  the  ordinary 
solar  year.  The  lunar  month  is  known  as  the  day  of  the  fathers 
(Pitriya),  the  solar  year  itself  is  known  as  the  clay  of  the 

MANVANTARA,  a  cycle  of  seventy-one  Chaturyugas,  during  which 
one  Manu  reigns,  i.e.,  during  which  exists  humanity  of  a  certain 

MANVANTARIC,  pertaining  to  a  Manvantara. 

MATARISHVA,  literally,  he  who  sleeps  in  space.  Applied  to  Prana 
as  performing  the  functions  of  recording  the  acts  of  men,  etc. 

MERU,  also  called  Sumeru.  The  Puranas  speak  of  its  being  a 
mountain  (Parvata,  Achala),  on  which  is  situated  Svarga,  the 
heaven  of  India,  containing  the  cities  of  gods,  with  celestial 
spirits  for  inhabitants.  It  is,  in  fact,  spoken  of  as  the  Olympus 
of  the  Hindus.  The  fact  is  that  Meru  is  no  mountain  of  earthly 
mould,  such  as  we  are  familiar  with  on  the  face  of  our  earth.  It 
is  the  boundary  line  which  divides  the  atmosphere  of  earth 
from  the  upper  air,  the  pure  ether,  or,  in  our  terminology,  the 


Mem  is  the  bounding  circle  of  the  terrestrial  Prana.  This  side 
the  circle  is  our  planet,  with  its  atmosphere;  that  side  the  celes 
tial  Prana,  the  abode  of  the  celestials.  The  sage  Vyasa  describes 
the  Bhurloka  (or  earth)  as  extending  from  sea  level  to  the  back 
of  the  Mem.  On  the  face  of  the  so-called  mountain  live  the 
celestials,  hence  the  earth's  boundary  is  its  back.  This  line  is 
called  a  mountain  from  its  fixed,  unchangeable  position. 

MOHA,  forget  fulness.  It  is  a  synonym  of  Asmita,  one  of  the  five 
"miseries"  of  Patanjali. 

MOKSHA,  that  state  of  being  in  which  the  downward  tendencies 
of  the  mind  absolutely  die  out,  and  in  which,  therefore,  the  mind 
remains  merged  in  the  soul  without  the  danger  of  rebirth. 

MRIGASHIRSHA,  a  lunar  mansion. 

MUI«A,  a  lunar  asterism. 

N,  the  symbol  for  one  of  those  Nadis  which  ramify  from  the 

NADI,  this  word  means  a  tube,  a  vessel.  It  is  applied  indiscrimi 
nately  to  blood-vessels  and  nerves.  The  idea  of  the  word  is  that 
of  a  tube,  a  vessel,  or  even  a  line,  along  which  something  flows, 
be  it  a  liquid  or  the  current  of  a  force. 

NAGA,  that  manifestation  of  life  which  causes  belching. 

NAMAH,  obeisance. 

NASAD  ASIT,  a  hymn  of  the  Rig  Veda,  the  one  hundred  and  twenty- 
ninth  of  the  tenth  Mandala,  which  begins  with  these  words.  In 
this  hymn  is  found  the  germ  of  the  Science  of  Breath. 

NAVANSHA,  the  ninth  part  of  a  sign  of  the  Zodiac. 

NIDRA,  dreamless  sleep. 

NIMRSHA,  a  division  of  time  =  -*-^  of  a  second.  Literally,  it  means 
the  twinkling  of  the  eye. 

NIRVANA,  the  extinguishment  of  the  downward  tendencies  of  the 
mind.  It  is  a  synonym  of  Moksha. 

NIRVICHARA,  the  ultra-meditative  intuition  in  which,  without  the 
least  effort  of  thought,  the  past  and  future,  the  antecedents  and 
consequents  of  a  present  phenomenon  at  once  make  their  ap 
pearance  in  the  mind. 

NIRVITARKA,    a   kind   of  intuition    (Sampatti),    the   wordless   in- 


tuition.  It  is  that  state  of  mental  lucidity  in  which  the  truths 
of  nature  shine  of  themselves  without  the  intervention  of 

PADA,  foot;  that  modification  of  life  matter  which  acts  in  walking. 

PADMA,  a  synonym  of  Kauiala. 

PAI«A,  a  measure,  a  weight,  about  i-J  oz. 

PAM  (P),  the  algebraical  symbol  for  the  Vayu  Tattva.     Pain  is  the 

neuter  nominative  of  the  letter  Pa,  the  first  letter  of  the  word 

Pavana,  a  synonym  of  Vayu. 
PANCHI-KARANA,  literally,  the  word  means  making  five-fold.     It 

has  been  roughly  translated  as  the  division  into  five.     It  means 

the  process  of  a  minimum  of  a  Tattva  being  composed  with 

those  of  others.     Thus,  after  the  process,  every  molecule,  say  of 

the  Prithivi  Tattva,  will  consist  of  eight  minima. 

p  .  ,  .  .  _  Prithivi  Akasha  Vayu  Agiii  Apas 

~~T~      +      ~~8~~       +    ~T~      +        ST     +    ~8~ 

And  so  on.     In  Ananda  the  Tattvas  are  single.     In  Vijnana  and 

afterwards  each  is  five-fold,  and  hence  each  has  a  colour,  etc. 
PANI,  hand ;  manual  power. 
PARABRAHMAN,  this  is  now  well  known  as  the  causeless  cause  of 

the  Universe,  the  One  Absolute  All. 
PARABRAHMANE,  the  dative  of  Parabrahman,  meaning  "to  Para- 

PARAMKSHTHI  SUKTA,  the  "Xasad  asit"  hymn  noticed  above  is 

also  called  the  Parameshthi  Sukta. 
PARAVAIRAGVA,  that  state  of  the  mind  when  its  manifestations 

become  absolutely  potential,  and  lose  all  power  of  coining  into 

the  actual  without  the  nod  of  the  soul.     In  this  state  every  high 

power  makes  its  appearance  easily  in  the  mind. 
PARINIRVANA,  the  last  state  in  which  the  human  soul  can  live, 

and  the  psychic,  mental,  and  physiological  influences  have  no 

power  on  that. 
PATANJAU,  the  author  of  the  Aphorisms  of  Yoga,  the  science  of 

mental  application  and  embellishment. 
PAYU,  excretive  organs;  the  modification  of  Prana  which  goes  to 

make  up  these. 


lvA,  the  Nadi,  and  the  system  of  Nadis  which  works  in  the 
right  half  of  the  body;  the  right  sympathetic. 
PITRIYA,  pertaining  to  the  fathers.     Pitriya  day  means  the  lunar 

PITTA,  a  synonym  of  Agni;  means  heat,  temperature. 
PRAKRITI,  the  undifferentiated  cosmic  matter. 

PRALAYA,  the  cessation  of  the  creative  energies  of  the  world;  the 
period  of  rest. 

PRAMAXA,  means  of  knowledge.  These  are:  (i)  Senses,  (ii)  Infer 
ence,  (iii)  Authority ;  or,  in  other  words,  the  experience  of  others. 

PRANA,  the  life  principle  of  the  universe  and  its  localized  mani 
festation;  the  life  principle  of  man  and  other  living  beings.  It 
consists  of  an  ocean  of  the  five  Tattvas.  The  suns  are  the 
different  centres  of  the  ocean  of  Prana.  Our  solar  system  is 
filled  to  its  extremest  limit  with  Prana,  and  it  is  in  this  ocean 
that  move  the  various  heavenly  bodies.  It  is  held  that  the 
\vhole  ocean  of  Prana,  with  the  sun  and  moon  and  other  planets, 
is  a  complete  picture  of  every  living  organism  on  earth,  or,  for 
that  matter,  of  any  planet.  Hence  is  Prana  spoken  of  some 
times  as  a  person,  a  living  being.  All  the  manifestations  of  life 
in  the  body  are  known  as  minor  Pranas.  The  pulmonary  mani 
festation  is  known  as  Prana  by  preeminence.  The  positive 
phase  of  matter  is  also  so  called  as  distinguished  from  Rayi,  the 
negative  phase  of  life  matter. 

PRAXAMAYA  KOSHA,  the  coil  of  life;  the  life  principle. 

PRANAYAMA,  the  practice  of  drawing  deep  breaths,  keeping  the 
indrawn  air  inside  as  long  as  possible,  and  then  breathing  the 
lungs  out  as  empty  as  possible. 

PRAPATHAKA,  a  chapter  of  the  Chhandogya  Upanishad. 

PRASHNOPANISHAD,  one  of  the  Upauishads. 

PRATYAKSHA,  perception. 

PRAYAGA,  really  the  conjunction  of  the  three  rivers,  tho  Ganges, 
the  Jumna,  and  the  now  nowhere  visible  Sarasvati  at  Allahabad. 
In  the  terminology  of  the  Science  of  Breath  it  is  applied  to  the 
conjunction  of  the  right  and  left  streams  of  breath. 

PRITIIIVI,  one  of  the  five  Tattvas;  the  odoriferous  ether. 

PUNARVASU,  one  of  the  lunar  mansions. 


PHRAKA,  the  process  in  Pranayjima  of  filling  the  lungs  with  ns 

much  air  as  possible,  drawing  as  deep  a  breath  as  possible. 
PURVABHADRAPAPA,  one  of  the  lunar  mansions. 
PURVASHADHA,  one  of  the  lunar  mansions. 
PusiiA,  the  name  of  the  Nadi  which  goes  to  the  right  ear. 
PUSHYA,  one  of  the  lunar  mansions. 

RAGA,  (i)  that  manifestation  of  the  mind  which  seeks  to  retain 
pleasure-giving  objects,  (ii)  A  mode  of  music.  There  are  eight 
modes  of  music,  and  each  of  these  has  several  minor  modes 
called  Raginis.  Each  Ragini  has  again  several  harmonies. 

RAGINI  (see  Raga). 

RAM,  neuter  nominative  of  Ra;  stands  as  the  symbol  for  the  Agni 

RASANA,  the  organ  of  taste. 

RAURAVA,  the  hell  in  which  the  qualities  of  the  Tejas  Tattva  are 
found  in  painful  excess. 

RAYI,  the  negative  phase  of  matter,  distinguished  from  the  posi 
tive  phase  by  its  impressibility.  In  fact,  it  is  the  cooler  life- 
matter,  while  the  hotter  is  named  Prana. 

RECHAKA,  the  practice  in  Pranayama  of  driving  the  breath  out  cf 
the  lungs. 

REVATI,  one  of  the  lunar  mansions. 

RIG  VEDA,  the  oldest  and  most  important  of  the  Vedas. 

RITAMBHARA,  the  faculty  of  psychic  perception  by  which  the 
realities  of  the  world  are  known  with  as  much  truth  and  exact 
ness  as  the  external  things  are  known  by  ordinary  perception. 

ROIIINI,  the  fourth  lunar  mansion. 

SA,  the  symbol   for  the  process  of  inspiration.     The  Shakti,  the 

receptive  modification  of  life-matter,  is  also  called  Sa. 
SADHAKAPITTA,  the  temperature  of  the  heart,  said  to  be  the  cause 

of  intelligence  and  understanding. 
SAMADHI,  trance;  the  state  in  which  the  mind  is  so  much  absorbed 

in  the  object  of  its  pursuit,  or  in  the  soul,  as  to  forget  itself  in 

the  object  of  its  attention. 
SAMANA,  that  manifestation  of  life  which  in  the  abdomen  is  said  to 

cause  the  absorption  and  distribution  of  food  all  over  the  body. 


SAMimf,  the  male  principle;  the  positive  phase  of  matter.      A 

name  of  the  god  Shiva. 
SAMPRAJNATA,   a  kind   of  Samadhi;    that  in  which   the   mental 

application  is  rewarded  by  the  discovery  of  truth. 
SANDHI,  the  conjunction  of  the  positive  and  negative  phases  of 
an}-  force.  This  is  a  synonym  of  Sushumna.  The  conjunction 
of  two  Tattvas.  When  one  Tattva  passes  into  another  the 
Akasha  intervenes.  In  fact,  there  can  be  no  change  from  one 
state  of  matter  to  another  without  this  all-pervading  Tattva 
intervening.  This  intervening  state  is,  however,  not  the  Sandhi. 
By  tattvic  conjunction  a  new  conjunct  Tattva  is  always  pro 
duced.  This  is  indicated  by  the  length  of  the  breath.  Thus, 
when  the  Agni  and  the  Yayu  conjoin,  the  length  is  somewhere 
between  these  two.  Similarly  for  other  Tattvas.  If  the  positive 
and  negative  phases  in  any  object  make  their  appearance  in 
regular  immediate  succession  for  some  time,  they  will  be  said  to 
be  in  conjunction  (Sandhi).  If,  however,  coming  from  opposite 
directions,  they  cancel  each  other,  the  result  is  either  Akasha  or 
Sushumna.  The  reader  will  perceive  that  there  is  very  little 
difference,  and  sometimes  none  at  all,  in  the  states  of  Akasha, 
Sandhi,  and  Sushumna.  If  Akasha  remains  stationary,  it  is 
Sushumna;  if  Sushumna  tends  towards  production,  it  becomes 
Akasha.  In  fact,  Akasha  is  that  state  which  immediately  fore 
shadows  any  other  tattvic  state  of  being. 

SANSKARA,  acquired  velocity;  acquired  habits.  A  synonym  of 

SARASVATI,  the  goddess  of  speech. 

SAT,  the  first  state  of  the  universe,  in  which  every  form  of  the 
living  universe,  even  Ishvara  himself,  lay  latent.  It  is  that  state 
from  which  the  non-composite  Tattvas  are  first  emitted. 

SATYA,  veracity;  truthfulness;  truth. 

SAVICHARA,  the  meditative  intuition.  (See  Nirvitarka  and  Nir- 

SAVITARKA,  a  kind  of  intuition ;  the  verbal  intuition. 

SIIAKTI,  a  power;  the  negative  phase  of  any  force;  the  consort  of 
a  god,  the  god  being  the  positive  phase  of  the  force. 

SHANK  H. A.YAU,  the  name  of  a  drm>-. 


SHANKHINI,  a  Nadi,  with  all  its  ramifications,  which  goes  to  the 

SHASTRA,  the  sacred  books  of  the  Hindus.     The  six  schools  of 


SHATABHISHAJ,  a  lunar  mansion. 
SHATACHAKRA  NIRUPANA,  the  name  of  a  work  on  the  philosophy 

of  the  Tantrists. 
SHIVAGAMA,  the  name  of  an  ancient  book.     The  present  treatise 

on  the  Science  of   Breath  contains  only  the  subject  of  one 

chapter  of  that  book,  which  is  now  nowhere  found. 
SHRAVANA,  a  lunar  mansion. 
SHROTRA,  ear;  the  auditory  phase  of  life-matter. 
SHVF.TAKETU,  the  name  of  an  ancient  philosopher  who  is  repre 
sented  in  the  Chhandogya  Upanishad  as  reading  Brahmavidya 

with  his  father  Gautama. 
SMRITI,  the  faculty  of  retentive  memory. 
STHULA,  gross. 
SxmUA  SHARIRA,  the  gross  body  as  distinguished  from  the  higher 

subtle  principles. 
SUKHA,  the  feeling  of  pleasure, 
the  sun. 

,  the  solar  sphere. 
SORYAMANDAI«A,  the  portion  of  space  where  the  influence  of  the 

sun  reaches. 
SUSHUMNA,  (i)  the  Nadi  which  spreads  in  the  middle  of  the  body. 

(ii)  The  spinal  chord,  with  all  its  ramifications.    (Hi)  That  state  of 

force  which  is  pregnant  of  both  the  negative  and  positive  phases; 

when  neither  the  moon-breath  nor  the  sun-breath  flows,  the 

Prana  is  said  to  be  in  Sushuruna. 
SUSHUPTI,    dreamless    sleep,  the    state    of   the   soul  when    the 

manifestations    of    the    mind    experienced    in    dream    are    at 


SVAPNA,  a  dream. 

SVARA,  the  current  of  the  life-wave;  the  Great  Breath;  the  breath 
of  man.    The  Great  Breath,  on  whatever  plane  of  life,  has  five 
modifications,  the  Tattvas. 
SVATI,  a  lunar  mansion. 


T,  the  name  of  one  of  the  Nadis  which  ramify  from  the  heart. 

TAMAS,  a  synonym  of  Avidya. 

TAXTRA,  a  class  of  treatises  on  the  science  of  the  human  body 
and  soul.  They  comprehend  a  great  deal  of  Yoga.  The  language 
which  they  use  is  highly  symbolical,  and  the  formulae  of  their 
faith  are  little  more  than  algebraical  expressions  without,  ;it 
present,  any  available  key. 

TATTVA,  (i)  a  mode  of  motion,  (ii)  The  central  impulse  which 
keeps  matter  in  a  certain  vibratory  state,  (iii)  A  distinct  form  of 
vibration.  The  Great  Breath  gives  to  Prakriti  five  sorts  of  ele 
mentary  extension.  The  first  and  the  most  important  of  these 
is  the  Akasha  Tattva;  the  remaining  four  are  the  Prithivi,  Vayu, 
Apas,  and  Agni.  Every  form  and  every  motion  is  a  manifesta 
tion  of  these  Tattvas  singly  or  in  conjunction,  as  the  case  may  be. 

TEJAS,  this  is  one  of  the  Tattvas;  the  luminiferons  ether.  The 
synonyms  of  this  word  are  Agni,  and,  rarely,  Raurava. 

TH,  the  name  of  one  of  the  Nadis  which  ramify  from  the  heart. 

TRKTA,  the  second  cycle  of  the  Chaturyuga,  a  period  of  3,600 
Daiva  years. 

TRJNSHAXSHA,  the  thirtieth  part  of  a  sign  of  the  Zodiac. 

TRUTI,  (i)  a  division  of  time.  One  hundred  and  fifty  Trutis  equal 
one  second,  (ii)  A  measure  of  space;  as  much  as  the  sun  or 
moon  takes  a  Truti  of  time  to  move  over.  A  Truti  is  a  perfect 
picture  of  the  whole  ocean  of  Prana.  It  is  the  astral  germ  of 
every  living  organism. 

TURA,  the  higher  notes  of  music  opposed  to  Komala. 

TURIYA,  the  fourth  state  of  consciousness.  The  state  of  absolute 
consciousness.  The  first  three  states  are:  (i)  waking,  (ii)  dream 
ing,  (iii)  sleep. 

TVAK,  skin. 

UDANA,  (i)  that  manifestation  of  life  which  carries  us  upwards. 

(ii)  That  manifestation  by  which  life  recedes  into  rest. 
UDALAKA,  an  ancient  philosopher  who  appears  as  teacher  in  the 

Pmsh  nopa  n  is  had. 

UTTARABHADHRAPADA,  a  lunar  mansion. 
UTTARA  GITA,  the  name  of  a  Tantrik  work. 


I"  fTARAPHALGl'N"!,  a  lunar  mansion. 
UTTARASHADHA,  another  luuar  mansion. 

YAIDHRITA,  or  VAIDHRITI,  the  twenty-seventh  Yoga.  There  an- 
twenty-seven  Yogas  in  the  ecliptic.  "The  Yoga,"  says  Cole- 
brooke,  "is  nothing  else  than  a  mode  of  indicating  the  sum  of 
the  longitudes  of  the  sun  and  moon";  and  so  it  is. 

YAIRAGYA,  indifference  to  the  pleasing  objects  of  the  world. 

YAK,  the  goddess  of  speech;  another  name  of  Sarasvati. 

YAM  (V),  the  symbol  of  the  Apas  Tattva,  from  Yari,  a  synonym  of 

\  ASANA,  the  habit  and  tendency  engendered  in  the  mind  by  the 
doing  of  any  act. 

YAYU,  one  of  the  Tattvas;  the  tangiferous  ether. 

YKDAS,  the  four  sacred  books  of  the  Hindus. 

YEDOVEDA,  a  manifestation  of  the  Sushumna. 

YKTAiyA,  an  evil  spirit. 

YICHARA,  meditation. 

YIJNANA,  literal!},  it  means  knowing.  Technically,  it  is  the 
psychic  matter  and  its  manifestations. 

YIJNANAMAYA  KosHA,  the  psychic  coil  of  the  spirit. 

YIKALPA,  complex  imagination. 

VINA,  a  string  instrument  of  music. 

YINDU,  point. 

YIPALA,  a  measure  of  time,  %  of  a  second. 

VIPARYAYA,  false  knowledge,  one  of  the  five  manifestations  of 
mind  recognized  by  the  sage  Patanjali. 

ViRAT,  the  immediate  father  of  Manu,  and  son  of  Rrahtna.  The 
akashic  state  of  psychic  matter  from  \vhich  proceed  the  mental 
Tattvas  which  constitute  Manu. 

YISHAKHA,  a  lunar  asterisui. 

VISHAMABHAVA,  unequal  state.  This  is  a  manifestation  of  Su 
shumna.  In  this  the  breath  flows  one  moment  out  of  one 
nostril  and  the  next  out  of  the  other. 

VISHRAMOPANISHAD,  the  name  of  a  Upanishad  translated  in  the 

VISHUVA,  YISHUVAT.  this  is  a  manifestation  of  Sushumna. 


YiTAKKA,  philosophical  curiosity. 

YVA.VA,  that  manifestation  of  life  which  causes  everv  part  of  the 

1-ody  to  keep  its  shape. 
Yvi.sA,  an  ancient  philosopher,   the  author  of  the  Mahdhlidrata, 

a  commentator  on  the  aphorisms  of  Yoga,  the  aphorisms  of  the 

Yedanta  and  other  work--. 
YVATIPATA.  one  of  the  twenty-seven  Yogas.     (See  Vai<!hrita.) 

YAKS  MA,  a  class  of  demi-gods. 
YAKSHINI,  the  female  Yaksha. 
YAMI-XA,  in  the  terminology  of  the  {Science  of  Breath  used  for 

the  flowing  left  Nad:. 

YASHASHVINI,  the  Nadi  which  goes  to  the  left  ear. 
YUC.A,  the  science  of  application,  attention,  and  the  em1>ellisli- 

ment  of  the  hin-.i^n  i!:i;id. 

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